International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Wil Michiels


Cryptanalysis of White-Box Implementations
A white-box implementation of a block cipher is a software implementation from which it is difficult for an attacker to extract the cryptographic key. Chow et al. published white-box implementations for AES and DES that both have been cryptanalyzed. However, these white-box implementations are based on ideas that can easily be used to derive white-box implementations for other block ciphers as well. As the cryptanalyses published use typical properties of AES and DES, it remains an open question whether the white-box techniques proposed by Chow et al. can result in a secure white-box implementation for other ciphers than AES and DES. In this paper we identify a generic class of block ciphers for which the white-box techniques of Chow et al. do not result in a secure white-box implementation. The result can serve as a basis to design block ciphers and to develop white-box techniques that do result in secure white-box implementations.
Cryptanalysis of White-Box DES Implementations with Arbitrary External Encodings
At DRM 2002, Chow et al. presented a method for implementing the DES block cipher such that it becomes hard to extract the embedded secret key in a white-box attack context. In such a context, an attacker has full access to the implementation and its execution environment. In order to provide an extra level of security, an implementation shielded with external encodings was introduced by Chow et al. and improved by Link and Neumann. In this paper, we present an algorithm to extract the secret key from such white-box DES implementations. The cryptanalysis is a differential attack on obfuscated rounds, and works regardless of the shielding external encodings that are applied. The cryptanalysis has a average time complexity of $2^{14}$ and a negligible space complexity.