International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Eli Biham

Affiliation: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2018
JOFC
2018
TOSC
Conditional Linear Cryptanalysis – Cryptanalysis of DES with Less Than 242 Complexity 📺
Eli Biham Stav Perle
In this paper we introduce a new extension of linear cryptanalysis that may reduce the complexity of attacks by conditioning linear approximations on other linear approximations. We show that the bias of some linear approximations may increase under such conditions, so that after discarding the known plaintexts that do not satisfy the conditions, the bias of the remaining known plaintexts increases. We show that this extension can lead to improvements of attacks, which may require fewer known plaintexts and time of analysis. We present several types of such conditions, including one that is especially useful for the analysis of Feistel ciphers. We exemplify the usage of such conditions for attacks by a careful application of our extension to Matsui’s attack on the full 16-round DES, which succeeds to reduce the complexity of the best attack on DES to less than 242. We programmed a test implementation of our attack and verified our claimed results with a large number of runs. We also introduce a new type of approximations, to which we call scattered approximations, and discuss its applications.
2016
JOFC
2015
JOFC
2015
JOFC
2010
EPRINT
Related-Key Boomerang and Rectangle Attacks
This paper introduces the related-key boomerang and the related-key rectangle attacks. These new attacks can expand the cryptanalytic toolbox, and can be applied to many block ciphers. The main advantage of these new attacks, is the ability to exploit the related-key model twice. Hence, even ciphers which were considered resistant to either boomerang or related-key differential attacks may be broken using the new techniques. In this paper we present a rigorous treatment of the related-key boomerang and the related-key rectangle distinguishers. Following this treatment, we devise optimal distinguishing algorithms using the LLR (Logarithmic Likelihood Ratio) statistics. We then analyze the success probability under reasonable independence assumptions, and verify the computation experimentally by implementing an actual attack on a 6-round variant of KASUMI. The paper ends with a demonstration of the strength of our new proposed techniques with attacks on 10-round AES-192 and the full KASUMI.
2008
TCC
2008
EUROCRYPT
2008
FSE
2008
FSE
2008
FSE
2008
JOFC
2008
CRYPTO
2007
FSE
2007
FSE
2007
EPRINT
Differential Cryptanalysis in Stream Ciphers
Eli Biham Orr Dunkelman
In this paper we present a general framework for the application of the ideas of differential cryptanalysis to stream ciphers. We demonstrate that some differences in the key (or the initial state or the plaintext) are likely to cause predicted differences in the key stream or in the internal state. These stream differences can then be used to analyze the internal state of the cipher and retrieve it efficiently. We apply our proposed ideas to stream ciphers of various designs, e.g., regularly clocked LFSRs, irregularly clocked LFSRs such as A5/1, and permutation-based stream ciphers such as RC4.
2007
EPRINT
A Framework for Iterative Hash Functions - HAIFA
Eli Biham Orr Dunkelman
Since the seminal works of Merkle and Damgard on the iteration of compression functions, hash functions were built from compression functions using the Merkle-Damgard construction. Recently, several flaws in this construction were identified, allowing for pre-image attacks and second pre-image attacks on such hash functions even when the underlying compression functions are secure. In this paper we propose the HAsh Iterative FrAmework (HAIFA). Our framework can fix many of the flaws while supporting several additional properties such as defining families of hash functions and supporting variable hash size. HAIFA allows for an online computation of the hash function in one pass with a fixed amount of memory independently of the size of the message. Besides our proposal, the recent attacks initiated research on the way compression functions are to be iterated. We show that most recent proposals such as randomized hashing, the enveloped Merkle-Damgard, and the RMC and ROX modes can be all be instantiated as part of the HAsh Iterative FrAmework (HAIFA).
2006
ASIACRYPT
2006
CRYPTO
2006
JOFC
2006
FSE
2005
ASIACRYPT
2005
EUROCRYPT
2005
EUROCRYPT
2005
FSE
2005
FSE
2005
EPRINT
Py (Roo): A Fast and Secure Stream Cipher using Rolling Arrays
Eli Biham Jennifer Seberry
Py (pronounced Roo, a shorthand for Kangaroo) is a new stream cipher designed especially for the Ecrypt stream cipher contest. It is based on a new kind of primitive, which we call Rolling Arrays. It also uses various other ideas from many types of ciphers, including variable rotations and permutations. In some sense, this design is a kind of a new type of rotor machine, which is specially designed with operations that are very efficient in software. The allowed stream size is $2^{64}$ bytes in each stream (or $2^{40}$ in the smaller version Py6). The security claims of the cipher are that no key recovery attacks can be performed with complexity smaller than that of exhaustive search, and distinguishing attacks are also impractical with a similar complexity. The speed of the cipher is impressively fast, as it is more than 2.5 times faster than RC4 on a Pentium III (with less than 2.9 cycles/byte when implemented with the API of NESSIE and tested with the NESSIE software).
2005
JOFC
2004
CRYPTO
2004
EPRINT
Near-Collisions of SHA-0
Eli Biham Rafi Chen
In this paper we find two near-collisions of the full compression function of SHA-0, in which up to 142 of the 160 bits of the output are equal. We also find many full collisions of 65-round reduced SHA-0, which is a large improvement to the best previous result of 35 rounds. We use the very surprising fact that the messages have many neutral bits, some of which do not affect the differences for about 15--20 rounds. We also show that 82-round SHA-0 is much weaker than the (80-round) SHA-0, although it has more rounds. This fact demonstrates that the strength of SHA-0 is not monotonous in the number of rounds.
2003
CRYPTO
2003
FSE
2003
FSE
2002
ASIACRYPT
2002
ASIACRYPT
2002
FSE
2002
EPRINT
New Results on Boomerang and Rectangle Attack
The boomerang attack is a new and very powerful cryptanalytic technique. However, due to the adaptive chosen plaintext and ciphertext nature of the attack, boomerang key recovery attacks that retrieve key material on both sides of the boomerang distinguisher are hard to mount. We also present a method for using a boomerang distinguisher, which enables retrieving subkey bits on both sides of the boomerang distinguisher. The rectangle attack evolved from the boomerang attack.In this paper we present a new algorithm which improves the results of the rectangle attack. Using these improvements we can attack 3.5-round SC2000 with $2^{67}$ adaptive chosen plaintexts and ciphertexts, and 10-round Serpent with time complexity of $2^{173.8}$ memory accesses (which are equivalent to $2^{165.3}$ Serpent encryptions) with data complexity of $2^{126.3}$ chosen plaintexts.
2002
EPRINT
In How Many Ways Can You Write Rijndael?
Elad Barkan Eli Biham
In this paper we ask the question what happens if we replace all the constants in Rijndael, including the replacement of the irreducible polynomial, the coefficients of the MixColumn operation, the affine transformation in the S box, etc. We show that such replacements can create new dual ciphers, which are equivalent to the original in all aspects. We present several such dual ciphers of Rijndael, such as the square of Rijndael, and dual ciphers with the irreducible polynomial replaced by primitive polynomials. We also describe another family of dual ciphers consisting of the logarithms of Rijndael. We then discuss self-dual ciphers, and extend our results to other ciphers.
2002
EPRINT
The Book of Rijndaels
Elad Barkan Eli Biham
This paper is the full book of the 240 dual ciphers of Rijndael, in which only the constants differ from Rijndael. See: ``In How Many Ways Can You Write Rijndael?'', http://eprint.iacr.org.
2002
JOFC
2001
EUROCRYPT
2001
FSE
2001
FSE
2001
EPRINT
The Rectangle Attack - Rectangling the Serpent
Serpent is one of the 5 AES finalists. The best attack published so far analyzes up to 9 rounds. In this paper we present attacks on 7-round, 8-round, and 10-round variants of Serpent. We attack 7-round variant of Serpent with all key lengths, and 8- and 10-round variants wih 256-bit keys. The 10-roun attack on the 256-bit keys variants is the best published attack on the cipher. The attack enhances the amplified boomerang attack and uses better differentials. We also present the best 3-round, 4-round, 5-round and 6-round differential characteristics of Serpent.
2000
EUROCRYPT
1999
EUROCRYPT
1999
FSE
1999
JOFC
1998
EUROCRYPT
1998
FSE
1998
JOFC
1997
CRYPTO
1997
FSE
1997
FSE
1997
EPRINT
Generalized Diffie-Hellman Modulo a Composite is not Weaker than Factoring
The Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol may naturally be extended to k>2 parties. This gives rise to the generalized Diffie-Hellman assumption (GDH-Assumption). Naor and Reingold have recently shown an efficient construction of pseudo-random functions and reduced the security of their construction to the GDH-Assumption. In this note, we prove that breaking this assumption modulo a composite would imply an efficient algorithm for factorization. Therefore, the security of both the key-exchange protocol and the pseudo-random functions can be reduced to factoring.
1997
JOFC
1996
FSE
1996
FSE
1996
JOFC
1994
ASIACRYPT
1994
ASIACRYPT
1994
EUROCRYPT
1994
EUROCRYPT
1994
FSE
1994
JOFC
1993
CRYPTO
1993
EUROCRYPT
1993
FSE
1992
CRYPTO
1991
CRYPTO
1991
EUROCRYPT
1991
EUROCRYPT
1991
JOFC
1990
CRYPTO

Program Committees

Crypto 2006
Eurocrypt 2006
FSE 2005
FSE 2004
Crypto 2004
Eurocrypt 2003 (Program chair)
FSE 2002
FSE 2001
FSE 2000
Eurocrypt 1999
FSE 1999
FSE 1998
FSE 1997 (Program chair)
FSE 1996
Asiacrypt 1994
FSE 1994
FSE 1993
Crypto 1993