International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Man Ho Au

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2021
CRYPTO
DualRing: Generic Construction of Ring Signatures with Efficient Instantiations
We introduce a novel generic ring signature construction, called DualRing, which can be built from several canonical identification schemes (such as Schnorr identification). DualRing differs from the classical ring signatures by its formation of two rings: a ring of commitments and a ring of challenges. It has a structural difference from the common ring signature approaches based on accumulators or zero-knowledge proofs of the signer index. Comparatively, DualRing has a number of unique advantages. Considering the DL-based setting by using Schnorr identification scheme, our DualRing structure allows the signature size to be compressed into logarithmic size via an argument of knowledge system such as Bulletproofs. We further improve on the Bulletproofs argument system to eliminate about half of the computation while maintaining the same proof size. We call this Sum Argument and it can be of independent interest. This DL-based construction, named DualRing-EC, using Schnorr identification with Sum Argument has the shortest ring signature size in the literature without using trusted setup. Considering the lattice-based setting, we instantiate DualRing by a canonical identification based on M-LWE and M-SIS. In practice, we achieve the shortest lattice-based ring signature, named DualRing-LB, when the ring size is between 4 and 2000. DualRing-LB is also 5x faster in signing and verification than the fastest lattice-based scheme by Esgin et al. (CRYPTO'19).
2020
CRYPTO
Collusion Resistant Watermarkable PRFs from Standard Assumptions 📺
A software watermarking scheme can embed a message into a program without significantly changing its functionality. Moreover, any attempt to remove the embedded message in a marked program will substantially change the functionality of the program. Prior constructions of watermarking schemes focus on watermarking cryptographic functions, such as pseudorandom function (PRF), public key encryption, etc. A natural security requirement for watermarking schemes is collusion resistance, where the adversary’s goal is to remove the embedded messages given multiple marked versions of the same program. Currently, this strong security guarantee has been achieved by watermarking schemes for public key cryptographic primitives from standard assumptions (Goyal et al., CRYPTO 2019) and by watermarking schemes for PRFs from indistinguishability obfuscation (Yang et al., ASIACRYPT 2019). However, no collusion resistant watermarking scheme for PRF from standard assumption is known. In this work, we solve this problem by presenting a generic construction that upgrades a watermarkable PRF without collusion resistance to a collusion resistant one. One appealing feature of our construction is that it can preserve the security properties of the original scheme. For example, if the original scheme has security with extraction queries, the new scheme is also secure with extraction queries. Besides, the new scheme can achieve unforgeability even if the original scheme does not provide this security property. Instantiating our construction with existing watermarking schemes for PRF, we obtain collusion resistant watermarkable PRFs from standard assumptions, offering various security properties.
2020
ASIACRYPT
Possibility and Impossibility Results for Receiver Selective Opening Secure PKE in the Multi-Challenge Setting 📺
Public key encryption (PKE) schemes are usually deployed in an open system with numerous users. In practice, it is common that some users are corrupted. A PKE scheme is said to be receiver selective opening (RSO) secure if it can still protect messages transmitted to uncorrupted receivers after the adversary corrupts some receivers and learns their secret keys. This is usually defined by requiring the existence of a simulator that can simulate the view of the adversary given only the opened messages. Existing works construct RSO secure PKE schemes in a single-challenge setting, where the adversary can only obtain one challenge ciphertext for each public key. However, in practice, it is preferable to have a PKE scheme with RSO security in the multi-challenge setting, where public keys can be used to encrypt multiple messages. In this work, we explore the possibility for achieving PKE schemes with receiver selective opening security in the multi-challenge setting. Our contributions are threefold. First, we demonstrate that PKE schemes with RSO security in the single-challenge setting are not necessarily RSO secure in the multi-challenge setting. Then, we show that it is impossible to achieve RSO security for PKE schemes if the number of challenge ciphertexts under each public key is a priori unbounded. In particular, we prove that no PKE scheme can be RSO secure in the $k$-challenge setting (i.e., the adversary can obtain $k$ challenge ciphertexts for each public key) if its secret key contains less than $k$ bits. On the positive side, we give a concrete construction of PKE scheme with RSO security in the $k$-challenge setting, where the ratio of the secret key length to $k$ approaches the lower bound 1.
2019
CRYPTO
Efficient Lattice-Based Zero-Knowledge Arguments with Standard Soundness: Construction and Applications 📺
We provide new zero-knowledge argument of knowledge systems that work directly for a wide class of language, namely, ones involving the satisfiability of matrix-vector relations and integer relations commonly found in constructions of lattice-based cryptography. Prior to this work, practical arguments for lattice-based relations either have a constant soundness error $$(2/3)$$, or consider a weaker form of soundness, namely, extraction only guarantees that the prover is in possession of a witness that “approximates” the actual witness. Our systems do not suffer from these limitations.The core of our new argument systems is an efficient zero-knowledge argument of knowledge of a solution to a system of linear equations, where variables of this solution satisfy a set of quadratic constraints. This argument enjoys standard soundness, a small soundness error $$(1/poly)$$, and a complexity linear in the size of the solution. Using our core argument system, we construct highly efficient argument systems for a variety of statements relevant to lattices, including linear equations with short solutions and matrix-vector relations with hidden matrices.Based on our argument systems, we present several new constructions of common privacy-preserving primitives in the standard lattice setting, including a group signature, a ring signature, an electronic cash system, and a range proof protocol. Our new constructions are one to three orders of magnitude more efficient than the state of the art (in standard lattice). This illustrates the efficiency and expressiveness of our argument system.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Strongly Secure Authenticated Key Exchange from Supersingular Isogenies
This paper aims to address the open problem, namely, to find new techniques to design and prove security of supersingular isogeny-based authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocols against the widest possible adversarial attacks, raised by Galbraith in 2018. Concretely, we present two AKEs based on a double-key PKE in the supersingular isogeny setting secure in the sense of CK$$^+$$, one of the strongest security models for AKE. Our contributions are summarised as follows. Firstly, we propose a strong OW-CPA secure PKE, $$\mathsf {2PKE_{sidh}}$$, based on SI-DDH assumption. By applying modified Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, we obtain a [OW-CCA, OW-CPA] secure KEM, $$\mathsf {2KEM_{sidh}}$$. Secondly, we propose a two-pass AKE, $$\mathsf {SIAKE}_2$$, based on SI-DDH assumption, using $$\mathsf {2KEM_{sidh}}$$ as a building block. Thirdly, we present a modified version of $$\mathsf {2KEM_{sidh}}$$ that is secure against leakage under the 1-Oracle SI-DH assumption. Using the modified $$\mathsf {2KEM_{sidh}}$$ as a building block, we then propose a three-pass AKE, $$\mathsf {SIAKE}_3$$, based on 1-Oracle SI-DH assumption. Finally, we prove that both $$\mathsf {SIAKE}_2$$ and $$\mathsf {SIAKE}_3$$ are CK$$^+$$ secure in the random oracle model and supports arbitrary registration. We also provide an implementation to illustrate the efficiency of our schemes. Our schemes compare favourably against existing isogeny-based AKEs. To the best of our knowledge, they are the first of its kind to offer security against arbitrary registration, wPFS, KCI, and MEX simultaneously. Regarding efficiency, our schemes outperform existing schemes in terms of bandwidth as well as CPU cycle count.
2019
ASIACRYPT
Collusion Resistant Watermarking Schemes for Cryptographic Functionalities
A cryptographic watermarking scheme embeds a message into a program while preserving its functionality. Recently, a number of watermarking schemes have been proposed, which are proven secure in the sense that given one marked program, any attempt to remove the embedded message will substantially change its functionality.In this paper, we formally initiate the study of collusion attacks for watermarking schemes, where the attacker’s goal is to remove the embedded messages given multiple copies of the same program, each with a different embedded message. This is motivated by practical scenarios, where a program may be marked multiple times with different messages.The results of this work are twofold. First, we examine existing cryptographic watermarking schemes and observe that all of them are vulnerable to collusion attacks. Second, we construct collusion resistant watermarking schemes for various cryptographic functionalities (e.g., pseudorandom function evaluation, decryption, etc.). To achieve our second result, we present a new primitive called puncturable functional encryption scheme, which may be of independent interest.
2018
PKC
Hedged Nonce-Based Public-Key Encryption: Adaptive Security Under Randomness Failures
Nowadays it is well known that randomness may fail due to bugs or deliberate randomness subversion. As a result, the security of traditional public-key encryption (PKE) cannot be guaranteed any more. Currently there are mainly three approaches dealing with the problem of randomness failures: deterministic PKE, hedged PKE, and nonce-based PKE. However, these three approaches only apply to different application scenarios respectively. Since the situations in practice are dynamic and very complex, it’s almost impossible to predict the situation in which a scheme is deployed, and determine which approach should be used beforehand.In this paper, we initiate the study of hedged security for nonce-based PKE, which adaptively applies to the situations whenever randomness fails, and achieves the best-possible security. Specifically, we lift the hedged security to the setting of nonce-based PKE, and formalize the notion of chosen-ciphertext security against chosen-distribution attacks (IND-CDA2) for nonce-based PKE. By presenting two counterexamples, we show a separation between our IND-CDA2 security for nonce-based PKE and the original NBP1/NBP2 security defined by Bellare and Tackmann (EUROCRYPT 2016). We show two nonce-based PKE constructions meeting IND-CDA2, NBP1 and NBP2 security simultaneously. The first one is a concrete construction in the random oracle model, and the second one is a generic construction based on a nonce-based PKE scheme and a deterministic PKE scheme.
2014
EPRINT
2014
EPRINT
2008
EPRINT
Constant-Size Dynamic $k$-TAA
Man Ho Au Willy Susilo Yi Mu
$k$-times anonymous authentication ($k$-TAA) schemes allow members of a group to be authenticated anonymously by application providers for a bounded number of times. Dynamic $k$-TAA allows application providers to independently grant or revoke users from their own access group so as to provide better control over their clients. In terms of time and space complexity, existing dynamic $k$-TAA schemes are of complexities O($k$), where $k$ is the allowed number of authentication. In this paper, we construct a dynamic $k$-TAA scheme with space and time complexities of $O(log(k))$. We also outline how to construct dynamic $k$-TAA scheme with a constant proving effort. Public key size of this variant, however, is $O(k)$. We then describe a trade-off between efficiency and setup freeness of AP, in which AP does not need to hold any secret while maintaining control over their clients. To build our system, we modify the short group signature scheme into a signature scheme and provide efficient protocols that allow one to prove in zero-knowledge the knowledge of a signature and to obtain a signature on a committed block of messages. We prove that the signature scheme is secure in the standard model under the $q$-SDH assumption. Finally, we show that our dynamic $k$-TAA scheme, constructed from bilinear pairing, is secure in the random oracle model.
2007
EPRINT
Efficient Hierarchical Identity Based Signature in the Standard Model
The only known constructions of Hierarchical Identity Based Signatures that are proven secure in the strongest model without random oracles are based on the approach of attaching certificate chains or hierarchical authentication tree with one-time signature. Both construction methods lead to schemes that are somewhat inefficient and leave open the problem of efficient direct construction. In this paper, we propose the first direct construction of Hierarchical Identity Based Signature scheme that is proven under the strongest model without relying on random oracles and using more standard $q$-SDH assumption. It is computationally efficient and the signature size is constant. When the number of hierarchical level is set to be one, our scheme is a normal identity based signature scheme. It enjoys the shortest size in public parameters and signatures when compare with others in the literature, with the same security level.
2007
EPRINT
Practical Compact E-Cash
Man Ho Au Willy Susilo Yi Mu
Compact e-cash schemes allow a user to withdraw a wallet containing $k$ coins in a single operation, each of which the user can spend unlinkably. One big open problem for compact e-cash is to allow multiple denominations of coins to be spent efficiently without executing the spend protocol a number of times. In this paper, we give a (\emph{partial}) solution to this open problem by introducing two additional protocols, namely, compact spending and batch spending. Compact spending allows spending all the $k$ coins in one operation while batch spending allows spending any number of coins in the wallet in a single execution. We modify the security model of compact e-cash to accommodate these added protocols and present a generic construction. While the spending and compact spending protocol are of constant time and space complexities, complexities of batch spending is linear in the number of coins to be spent together. Thus, we regard our solution to the open problem as {\it partial}. We provide two instantiations under the $q$-SDH assumption and the LRSW assumption respectively and present security arguments for both instantiations in the random oracle model.
2007
EPRINT
(Convertible) Undeniable Signatures without Random Oracles
We propose a convertible undeniable signature scheme without random oracles. Our construction is based on Waters' and Kurosawa and Heng's schemes that were proposed in Eurocrypt 2005. The security of our scheme is based on the CDH and the decision linear assumption. Comparing only the part of undeniable signatures, our scheme uses more standard assumptions than the existing undeniable signatures without random oracles due to Laguillamie and Vergnaud.
2007
EPRINT
Structural Identity-Based Encryption
Man Ho Au Siu-Ming Yiu
In this paper, we introduce the concept of structural identity-based encryption (SIBE). Similar to hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE), entities in the system are organized into hierarchy. An entity in SIBE can decrypt ciphertext for all its ancestors. It can be seen as an opposite of HIBE, where an entity can decrypt the ciphertext for all its descendants. We formalize the notion and security requirements, propose an efficient construction and show that our construction is secure under appropriate assumptions in the random oracle model.
2007
EPRINT
Practical Anonymous Divisible E-Cash From Bounded Accumulators
Man Ho Au Willy Susilo Yi Mu
We present an efficient off-line divisible e-cash scheme which is \emph{truly anonymous} without a trusted third party. This is the second scheme in the literature which achieves full unlinkability and anonymity, after the seminal work proposed by Canard and Gouget. The main trick of our scheme is the use of a bounded accumulator in combination with the classical binary tree approach. The aims of this paper are twofold. Firstly, we analyze Canard and Gouget's seminal work on the efficient off-line divisible e-cash. We point out some subtleties on the parameters generation of their scheme. Moreover, spending a coin of small value requires computation of several hundreds of multi-based exponentiations, which is very costly. In short, although this seminal work provides a new approach of achieving a truly anonymous divisible e-cash, unfortunately it is rather impractical. Secondly, we present our scheme that uses a novel approach of incorporating a bounded accumulator. In terms of time and space complexities, our scheme is $50$ to $100$ times more efficient than Canard and Gouget's work in the spend protocol at the cost of an $10$ to $500$ (the large range is due to whether pre-processing is taken into account and the probabilistic nature of our withdrawal protocol) times less efficient withdrawal protocol. We believe this trade-off between the withdrawal protocol and the spend protocol is reasonable as the former protocol is to be executed much less frequent than the latter. Nonetheless, while their scheme provides an affirmative answer to whether divisible e-cash can be \emph{truly anonymous}, our result puts it a step further and we show that truly anonymous divisible e-cash can be \emph{practical}.
2006
EPRINT
ID-Based Ring Signature Scheme secure in the Standard Model
The only known construction of ID-based ring signature schemes which maybe secure in the standard model is to attach certificates to non-ID-based ring signatures. This method leads to schemes that are somewhat inefficient and it is an open problem to find more efficient and direct constructions. In this paper, we propose two such constructions. Our first scheme, with signature size linear in the cardinality of the ring, is secure in the standard model under the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption. The second scheme, achieving constant signature size, is secure in a weaker attack model (the selective ID and weak chosen message model), under the Diffie-Hellman Inversion assumption.
2006
EPRINT
Self-Generated-Certificate Public Key Cryptosystem
Joseph K. Liu Man Ho Au
Certificateless Public Key Cryptography (CL-PKC) enjoys a number of features of Identity-Based Cryptography (IBC) while without having the problem of key escrow. However, it \textit{does} suffer to an attack where the adversary, Carol, replaces Alice's public key by someone's public key so that Bob, who wants to send an encrypted message to Alice, uses Alice's identity and other's public key as the inputs to the encryption function. As a result, Alice cannot decrypt the message while Bob is unaware of this. We call it \textit{Denial-of-Decryption (DoD) Attack} as its nature is similar to the well known Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack. Based on CL-PKC, we propose a new paradigm called \textit{Self-Generated-Certificate Public Key Cryptography (SGC-PKC)} that captures the DoD Attack. We also provide a generic construction of a self-generated-certificate public key encryption scheme in the standard model. In addition, we further propose a certificateless signature and a certificateless encryption scheme with concrete implementation. They are all provably secure in the standard model, which are the first in the literature regardless of the generic constructions by Yum and Lee which may contain security weaknesses as pointed out by others. We believe these concrete implementations are of independent interest.
2006
EPRINT
Malicious KGC Attacks in Certificateless Cryptography
Identity-based cryptosystems have an inherent key escrow issue, that is, the Key Generation Center (KGC) always knows user secret key. If the KGC is malicious, it can always impersonate the user. Certificateless cryptography, introduced by Al-Riyami and Paterson in 2003, is intended to solve this problem. However, in all the previously proposed certificateless schemes, it is always assumed that the malicious KGC starts launching attacks (so-called Type II attacks) only after it has generated a master public/secret key pair honestly. In this paper, we propose new security models that remove this assumption for both certificateless signature and encryption schemes. Under the new models, we show that a class of certificateless encryption and signature schemes proposed previously are insecure. These schemes still suffer from the key escrow problem. On the other side, we also give new proofs to show that there are two generic constructions, one for certificateless signature and the other for certificateless encryption, proposed recently that are secure under our new models.
2006
EPRINT
Practical Hierarchical Identity Based Encryption and Signature schemes Without Random Oracles
In this paper, we propose a Hierarchical Identity Based Encryption scheme that is proven secure under the strongest model of \cite{BonehFr01} directly, without relying on random oracles. The size of the ciphertext is a constant while the size of public parameters is independent to the number of bit representing an identity. It is the first in the literature to achieve such a high security level and space efficiency at the same time. In addition, we also propose the first Hierarchical Identity Based Signature scheme that is proven under the strongest model without relying on random oracles and using more standard $q$-SDH assumption. Similar to the proposed encryption scheme, the space complexity of the signature and public parameters are as efficient as the proposed encryption scheme.
2006
EPRINT
Self-Generated-Certificate Public Key Cryptography and Certificateless Signature / Encryption Scheme in the Standard Model
Certificateless Public Key Cryptography (CL-PKC) enjoys a number of features of Identity-Based Cryptography (IBC) while without having the problem of key escrow. However, it \textit{does} suffer to an attack where the adversary, Carol, replaces Alice's public key by someone's public key so that Bob, who wants to send an encrypted message to Alice, uses Alice's identity and other's public key as the inputs to the encryption function. As a result, Alice cannot decrypt the message while Bob is unaware of this. We call it \textit{Denial-of-Decryption (DoD) Attack} as its nature is similar to the well known Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attack. Based on CL-PKC, we propose a new paradigm called \textit{Self-Generated-Certificate Public Key Cryptography (SGC-PKC)} that captures the DoD Attack. We also provide a generic construction of a self-generated-certificate public key encryption scheme in the standard model. Our generic construction uses certificateless signature and certificateless encryption as the building block. In addition, we further propose a certificateless signature and a certificateless encryption scheme with concrete implementation that are all provably secure in the standard model, which are the first in the literature regardless of the generic constructions by Yum and Lee which may contain security weaknesses as pointed out by others. We believe these concrete implementations are of independent interest.
2005
EPRINT
A Suite of ID-Based Threshold Ring Signature Schemes with Different Levels of Anonymity
Since the introduction of Identity-based (ID-based) cryptography by Shamir in 1984, numerous ID-based signature schemes have been proposed. In 2001, Rivest et al. introduced ring signature that provides irrevocable signer anonymity and spontaneous group formation. In recent years, ID-based ring signature schemes have been proposed and all of them are based on bilinear pairings. In this paper, we propose the first ID-based threshold ring signature scheme that is not based on bilinear pairings. We also propose the first ID-based threshold `linkable' ring signature scheme. We emphasize that the anonymity of the actual signers is maintained even against the private key generator (PKG) of the ID-based system. Finally we show how to add identity escrow to the two schemes. Due to the different levels of signer anonymity they support, the schemes proposed in this paper actually form a suite of ID-based threshold ring signature schemes which is applicable to many real-world applications with varied anonymity requirements.
2004
EPRINT
ID-based Cryptography from Composite Degree Residuosity
Man Ho Au Victor K. Wei
We present identity-based identification (resp. encryption, signature, blind signature,ring signature) from composite degree residuosity (CDR). Constructions of identifications and signatures motivated by several existing CDR-based bandwidth-efficient encryption schemes are presented. Their securities are proven equivalent to famous hard problems, in the random oracle model. Motivated by Cocks,we construct an identity-based encryption from CDR. Its security is proven equivalent to a new problem, the JSR (Jacobi Symbol of Roots of two quadratic polynomials) Problem. We prove JSR is at least as hard as QRP (Quadratic Residuosity Problem). Furthermore, we present the first two-way equivalence reduction of the security of Cocks' IBE, to the JSR Problem.
2004
EPRINT
Separable Linkable Threshold Ring Signatures
A ring signature scheme is a group signature scheme with no group manager to setup a group or revoke a signer. A linkable ring signature, introduced by Liu, et al. \cite{LWW04}, additionally allows anyone to determine if two ring signatures are signed by the same group member (a.k.a. they are \emph{linked}). In this paper, we present the first separable linkable ring signature scheme, which also supports an efficient thresholding option. We also present the security model and reduce the security of our scheme to well-known hardness assumptions. In particular, we introduce the security notions of {\em accusatory linkability} and {\em non-slanderability} to linkable ring signatures. Our scheme supports ``event-oriented'' linking. Applications to such linking criterion is discussed.