International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Gautham Sekar

Affiliation: K.U. Leuven

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2007
EPRINT
Weaknesses in the Pseudorandom Bit Generation Algorithms of the Stream Ciphers TPypy and TPy
The stream ciphers Py, Py6 were designed by Biham and Seberry for the ECRYPT-eSTREAM project in 2005. However, due to several recent cryptanalytic attacks on them, a strengthened version Pypy was proposed to rule out those attacks. The ciphers have been promoted to the `Focus' ciphers of the Phase II of the eSTREAM project. The impressive speed of the ciphers make them the forerunners in the competition. Unfortunately, even the new cipher Pypy was found to retain weaknesses, forcing the designers to again go for modifications. As a result, three new ciphers TPypy, TPy and TPy6 were built. Among all the members of the Py-family of ciphers, the TPypy is conjectured to be the strongest. So far, there is no known attack on the TPypy. This paper shows that the security of TPypy does not grow exponentially with the key-size. The main achievement of the paper is the detection of input-output correlations of TPypy that allow us to build a distinguisher with $2^{281}$ randomly chosen key/IVs and as many outputwords (each key generating one outputword). The cipher TPypy was claimed by the designers to be secure with keysize up to 256 bytes, i.e., 2048 bits. Our results establish that the TPypy fails to provide adequate security if the keysize is longer than 35 bytes, i.e., 280 bits. Note that the distinguisher is built within the design specifications of the cipher. Because of remarkable similarities between the TPypy and the TPy, our attacks are shown to be effective for TPy also. The paper also points out how the other members of the Py-family (i.e., Pypy and Py) are also weak against the current attacks.
2007
EPRINT
New Weaknesses in the Keystream Generation Algorithms of the Stream Ciphers TPy and Py
The stream ciphers Py, Py6 designed by Biham and Seberry were promising candidates in the ECRYPT-eSTREAM project because of their impressive speed. Since their publication in April 2005, a number of cryptanalytic weaknesses of the ciphers have been discovered. As a result, a strengthened version Pypy was developed to repair these weaknesses; it was included in the category of `Focus ciphers' of the Phase II of the eSTREAM competition. However, even the new cipher Pypy was not free from flaws, resulting in a second redesign. This led to the generation of three new ciphers TPypy, TPy and TPy6. The designers claimed that TPy would be secure with a key size up to 256 bytes, i.e., 2048 bits. In February 2007, Sekar \emph{et al.\ }published an attack on TPy with $2^{281}$ data and comparable time. This paper shows how to build a distinguisher with $2^{275}$ key/IVs and one outputword for each key (i.e., the distinguisher can be constructed within the design specifications); it uses a different set of weak states of the TPy. Our results show that distinguishing attacks with complexity lower than the brute force exist if the key size of TPy is longer than 275 bits. Therefore, for such keys, our attack constitutes an academic break of the cipher. Furthermore, we discover a large number of similar bias-producing states of TPy and provide a general framework to compute them. The attacks on TPy are also shown to be effective on Py.
2007
EPRINT
New Attacks on the Stream Cipher TPy6 and Design of New Ciphers the TPy6-A and the TPy6-B
The stream ciphers Py, Pypy and Py6 were designed by Biham and Seberry for the ECRYPT-eSTREAM project in 2005. The ciphers were promoted to the `Focus' ciphers of the Phase II of the eSTREAM project. However, due to some cryptanalytic results on the ciphers, strengthened versions of the ciphers, namely TPy, TPypy and TPy6 were built. So far there exists no attacks on TPy6. In this paper, we find hitherto unknown weaknesses in the keystream generation algorithms of the Py6 and of its stronger variant TPy6. Exploiting these weaknesses, a large number of distinguishing attacks are mounted on the ciphers, the best of which works with $2^{224.6}$ data and comparable time. In the second part, we present two new ciphers derived from the TPy6, namely TPy6-A and TPy6-B, whose performances are 2.65 cycles/byte and 4.4 cycles/byte on Pentium III. As a result, to the best of our knowledge, on Pentium platforms TPy6-A becomes the fastest stream cipher in the literature. Based on our security analysis, we conjecture that no attacks better than brute force are possible on the ciphers TPy6-A and TPy6-B.
2006
FSE

Coauthors

Souradyuti Paul (4)
Bart Preneel (4)