International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


John Viega


The Security and Performance of the Galois/Counter Mode of Operation (Full Version)
David A. McGrew John Viega
The recently introduced Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) of operation for block ciphers provides both encryption and message authentication, using universal hashing based on multiplication in a binary finite field. We analyze its security and performance, and show that it is the most efficient mode of operation for high speed packet networks, by using a realistic model of a network crypto module and empirical data from studies of Internet traffic in conjunction with software experiments and hardware designs. GCM has several useful features: it can accept IVs of arbitrary length, can act as a stand-alone message authentication code (MAC), and can be used as an incremental MAC. We show that GCM is secure in the standard model of concrete security, even when these features are used. We also consider several of its important system-security aspects.
CWC: A high-performance conventional authenticated encryption mode
We introduce CWC, a new block cipher mode of operation for protecting both the privacy and the authenticity of encapsulated data. CWC is currently the only such mode having all five of the following properties: provable security, parallelizability, high performance in hardware, high performance in software, and no intellectual property concerns. We believe that having all five of these properties makes CWC a powerful tool for use in many performance-critical cryptographic applications. CWC is also the only appropriate solution for some applications; e.g., standardization bodies like the IETF and NIST prefer patent-free modes, and CWC is the only such mode capable of processing data at 10Gbps in hardware, which will be important for future IPsec (and other) network devices. As part of our design, we also introduce a new parallelizable universal hash function optimized for performance in both hardware and software.