International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

Gene Itkis

Affiliation: MIT Lincoln Laboratory

Publications

Year
Venue
Title
2017
PKC
2009
JOFC
2005
TCC
2005
EPRINT
Intrusion-Resilient Secure Channels
We propose a new secure communication primitive called an \emph{Intrusion-Resilient Channel (IRC)} that limits the damage resulting from key exposures and facilitates recovery. We define security against passive but mobile and highly adaptive adversaries capable of exposing even expired past secrets. We describe an intuitive channel construction using (as a black box) existing public key cryptosystems. The simplicity of the construction belies the technical challenges in its security proof. Additionally, we outline a general strategy for proving enhanced security for two-party protocols when an IRC is employed to secure all communication. Specifically, given a protocol proved secure against adversaries with restricted access to protocol messages, we show how the use of an IRC allows some of these adversary restrictions to be lifted. Once again, proving the efficacy of our intuitive approach turns out to be non-trivial. We demonstrate the strategy by showing that the intrusion-resilient signature scheme of [IR02] can be made secure against adversaries that expose even expired secrets.
2004
EPRINT
Upper and Lower Bounds on Black-Box Steganography
We study the limitations of steganography when the sender is not using any properties of the underlying channel beyond its entropy and the ability to sample from it. On the negative side, we show that the number of samples the sender must obtain from the channel is exponential in the rate of the stegosystem. On the positive side, we present the first secret-key stegosystem that essentially matches this lower bound regardless of the entropy of the underlying channel. Furthermore, for high-entropy channels, we present the first secret-key stegosystem that matches this lower bound statelessly (i.e., without requiring synchronized state between sender and receiver).
2003
EPRINT
Cryptographic Tamper Evidence
Gene Itkis
We propose a new notion of cryptographic tamper evidence. A tamper-evident signature scheme provides an additional procedure Div which detects tampering: given two signatures, Div can determine whether one of them was generated by the forger. Surprisingly, this is possible even after the adversary has inconspicuously learned some --- or even all --- the secrets in the system. In this case, it might be impossible to tell which signature is generated by the legitimate signer and which by the forger. But at least the fact of the tampering will be made evident. We define several variants of tamper-evidence, differing in their power to detect tampering. In all of these, we assume an equally powerful adversary: she adaptively controls all the inputs to the legitimate signer (i.e., all messages to be signed and their timing), and observes all his outputs; she can also adaptively expose all the secrets at arbitrary times. We provide tamper-evident schemes for all the variants and prove their optimality. We stress that our mechanisms are purely cryptographic: the tamper-detection algorithm Div is stateless and takes no inputs except the two signatures (in particular, it keeps no logs), we use no infrastructure (or other ways to conceal additional secrets), and we use no hardware properties (except those implied by the standard cryptographic assumptions, such as random number generators). Our constructions are based on arbitrary ordinary signature schemes and do not require random oracles.
2003
EPRINT
Generalized Key-Evolving Signature Schemes or How to Foil an Armed Adversary
Gene Itkis Peng Xie
Key exposures, known or inconspicuous, are a real security threat. Recovery mechanisms from such exposures are required. For digital signatures such a recovery should ideally ---and when possible--- include invalidation of the signatures issued with the compromised keys. We present new signature schemes with such recovery capabilities. We consider two models for key exposures: full and partial reveal. In the first, a key exposure reveals {\em all} the secrets currently existing in the system. This model is suitable for the pessimistic inconspicuous exposures scenario. The partial reveal model permits the signer to conceal some information under exposure: e.g., under coercive exposures the signer is able to reveal a ``fake'' secret key. We propose a definition of {\em generalized key-evolving signature scheme}, which unifies forward-security and security against the coercive and inconspicuous key exposures (previously considered separately \cite{BM99,NPT02-mono,I02-TE}). The new models help us address repudiation problems inherent in the monotone signatures \cite{NPT02-mono}, and achieve performance improvements.
2002
CRYPTO
2002
EPRINT
SiBIR: Signer-Base Intrusion-Resilient Signatures
Gene Itkis Leonid Reyzin
We propose a new notion of intrusion-resilient signature schemes, which generalizes and improves upon both forward-secure [And97,BM99] and key-insulated [DKXY02] signature schemes. Specifically, as in the prior notions, time is divided into predefined time periods (e.g., days); each signature includes the number of the time time period in which it was generated; while the public key remains the same, the secret keys evolve with time. Also, as in key-insulated schemes, the user has two modules, signer and home base: the signer generates signatures on his own, and the base is needed only to help update the signer's key from one period to the next. The main strength of intrusion-resilient schemes, as opposed to prior notions, is that they remain secure even after arbitrarily many compromises of both modules, as long as the compromises are not simultaneous. Moreover, even if the intruder does compromise both modules simultaneously, she will still be unable to generate any signatures for the previous time periods. We provide an efficient intrusion-resilient signature scheme, provably secure in the random oracle model based on the strong RSA assumption. We also discuss how such schemes can eliminate the need for certificate revocation in the case of on-line authentication.
2001
CRYPTO
2001
EPRINT
Forward-Secure Signatures with Optimal Signing and Verifying
Gene Itkis Leonid Reyzin
Ordinary digital signatures have an inherent weakness: if the secret key is leaked, then all signatures, even the ones generated before the leak, are no longer trustworthy. Forward-secure digital signatures were recently proposed to address this weakness: they ensure that past signatures remain secure even if the current secret key is leaked. We propose the first forward-secure signature scheme for which both signing and verifying are as efficient as for one of the most efficient ordinary signature schemes (Guillou-Quisquater): each requiring just two modular exponentiations with a short exponent. All previously proposed forward-secure signature schemes took significantly longer to sign and verify than ordinary signature schemes. Our scheme requires only fractional increases to the sizes of keys and signatures, and no additional public storage. Like the underlying Guillou-Quisquater scheme, our scheme is provably secure in the random oracle model.