Updateable Inner Product Argument with Logarithmic Verifier and Applications 📺
We propose an improvement for the inner product argument of Bootle et al. (EUROCRYPT’16). The new argument replaces the unstructured common reference string (the commitment key) by a structured one. We give two instantiations of this argument, for two different distributions of the CRS. In the designated verifier setting, this structure can be used to reduce verification from linear to logarithmic in the circuit size. The argument can be compiled to the publicly verifiable setting in asymmetric bilinear groups. The new common reference string can easily be updateable. The argument can be directly used to improve verification of Bulletproofs range proofs (IEEE SP’18). On the other hand, to use the improved argument to prove circuit satisfiability with logarithmic verification, we adapt recent techniques from Sonic (ACM CCS’19) to work with the new common reference string. The resulting argument is secure under standard assumptions (in the Random Oracle Model), in contrast with Sonic and recent works that improve its efficiency (Plonk, Marlin, AuroraLight), which, apart from the Random Oracle Model, need either the Algebraic Group Model or Knowledge Type assumptions.
Shorter Quadratic QA-NIZK Proofs
Despite recent advances in the area of pairing-friendly Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge proofs, there have not been many efficiency improvements in constructing arguments of satisfiability of quadratic (and larger degree) equations since the publication of the Groth-Sahai proof system (JoC’12). In this work, we address the problem of aggregating such proofs using techniques derived from the interactive setting and recent constructions of SNARKs. For certain types of quadratic equations, this problem was investigated before by González et al. (ASIACRYPT’15). Compared to their result, we reduce the proof size by approximately 50% and the common reference string from quadratic to linear, at the price of using less standard computational assumptions. A theoretical motivation for our work is to investigate how efficient NIZK proofs based on falsifiable assumptions can be. On the practical side, quadratic equations appear naturally in several cryptographic schemes like shuffle and range arguments.