## CryptoDB

### Changrui Mu

#### Publications

**Year**

**Venue**

**Title**

2024

EUROCRYPT

Strong Batching for Non-Interactive Statistical Zero-Knowledge
Abstract

In a zero-knowledge proof, a prover needs to convince a verifier that an input x is contained in a language Pi without revealing any additional information. By repeating a zero-knowledge proof k times, it is possible to prove (still in zero-knowledge) that k separate inputs x1,...,xk all belong to Pi. But this increases the communication by a factor of k. Can one do better? In other words, is (non-trivial) zero-knowledge batch verification for Pi possible?
Recent works by Kaslasi et al. (TCC 2020, Eurocrypt 2021) show that any problem possessing a non-interactive statistical zero-knowledge proof (NISZK) has a non-trivial statistical zero-knowledge batch verification protocol. Two major limitations of their results are: (1) the communication in the batch protocol is roughly poly(n,log(k))+O(k), which is better than the naive cost of k*poly(n) but still scales linearly with k, and, (2) the batch protocol requires Omega(k) rounds of interaction.
In this work we remove both of these limitations by showing that any problem in NISZK has a non-interactive statistical zero-knowledge batch verification protocol with communication poly(n,log(k)).

2024

TCC

Instance-Hiding Interactive Proofs
Abstract

In an Instance-Hiding Interactive Proof (IHIP) [Beaver et al. CRYPTO 90], an efficient verifier with a _private_ input x interacts with an unbounded prover to determine whether x is contained in a language L. In addition to completeness and soundness, the instance-hiding property requires that the prover should not learn anything about x in the course of the interaction. Such proof systems capture natural privacy properties, and may be seen as a generalization of the influential concept of Randomized Encodings [Ishai et al. FOCS 00, Applebaum et al. FOCS 04, Agrawal et al. ICALP 15], and as a counterpart to Zero-Knowledge proofs [Goldwasser et al. STOC 89].
We investigate the properties and power of such instance-hiding proofs, and show the following:
1. Any language with an IHIP is contained in NP/poly and coNP/poly.
2. If an average-case hard language has an IHIP, then One-Way Functions exist.
3. There is an oracle with respect to which there is a language that has an IHIP but not an SZK proof.
4. IHIP's are closed under composition with any efficiently computable function.
We further study a stronger version of IHIP (that we call Simulatable IHIP) where the view of the honest prover can be efficiently simulated. For these, we obtain stronger versions of some of the above:
5. Any language with a Simulatable IHIP is contained in AM and coAM.
6. If a _worst-case_ hard language has a Simulatable IHIP, then One-Way Functions exist.

#### Coauthors

- Changrui Mu (2)
- Shafik Nassar (1)
- Ron D. Rothblum (1)
- Prashant Nalini Vasudevan (2)