International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Akin Ünal


Compact Selective Opening Security From LWE
Selective opening (SO) security is a security notion for public-key encryption schemes that captures security against adaptive corruptions of senders. SO security comes in chosen-plaintext (SO-CPA) and chosen-ciphertext (SO-CCA) variants, neither of which is implied by standard security notions like IND-CPA or IND-CCA security. In this paper, we present the first SO-CCA secure encryption scheme that combines the following two properties: (1) it has a constant ciphertext expansion (i.e., ciphertexts are only larger than plaintexts by a constant factor), and (2) its security can be proven from a standard assumption. Previously, the only known SO-CCA secure encryption scheme achieving (1) was built from an ad-hoc assumption in the RSA regime. Our construction builds upon LWE, and in particular on a new and surprisingly simple construction of compact lossy trapdoor functions (LTFs). Our LTF can be converted into an “all-but-many LTF” (or ABM-LTF), which is known to be sufficient to obtain SO-CCA security. Along the way, we fix a technical problem in that previous ABM-LTF-based construction of SO-CCA security.
Lower Bounds for Lattice-based Compact Functional Encryption
Erkan Tairi Akin Ünal
Functional encryption (FE) is a primitive where the holder of a master secret key can control which functions a user can evaluate on encrypted data. It is a powerful primitive that even implies indistinguishability obfuscation (iO), given sufficiently compact ciphertexts (Ananth-Jain, CRYPTO'15 and Bitansky-Vaikuntanathan, FOCS'15). However, despite being extensively studied, there are FE schemes, such as function-hiding inner-product FE (Bishop-Jain-Kowalczyk, AC'15, Abdalla-Catalano-Fiore-Gay-Ursu, CRYPTO’18) and compact quadratic FE (Baltico-Catalano-Fiore-Gay, Lin, CRYPTO’17), that can be only realized using pairings. This raises the question if there are some mathematical barriers that hinder us from realizing these FE schemes from other assumptions. In this paper, we study the difficulty of constructing lattice-based compact FE. We generalize the impossibility results of Ünal (EC'20) for lattice-based function-hiding FE, and extend it to the case of compact FE. Concretely, we prove lower bounds for lattice-based compact FE schemes which meet some (natural) algebraic restrictions at encryption and decryption, and have ciphertexts of linear size and secret keys of minimal degree. We see our results as important indications of why it is hard to construct lattice-based FE schemes for new functionalities, and which mathematical barriers have to be overcome.