International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Zhihao Li


Circuit Bootstrapping: Faster and Smaller
We present a novel circuit bootstrapping algorithm that outperforms the state-of-the-art TFHE method with 9.9× speedup and 15.6× key size reduction. These improvements can be attributed to two technical contributions. Firstly, we redesigned the circuit bootstrapping workflow to operate exclusively under the ring ciphertext type, which eliminates the need of conversion between LWE and RLWE ciphertexts. Secondly, we improve the LMKC+ blind rotation algorithm by reducing the number of automorphisms, then propose the first automorphism type multi-value functional bootstrapping. These automorphism-based techniques lead to further key size optimization, and are of independent interest besides circuit bootstrapping. Based our new circuit bootstrapping we can evaluate AES-128 in 26.2s (single thread), achieving 10.3× speedup compared with the state-of-the-art TFHE-based approach.
Faster Bootstrapping via Modulus Raising and Composite NTT
FHEW-like schemes utilize exact gadget decomposition to reduce error growth and ensure that the bootstrapping incurs only polynomial error growth. However, the exact gadget decomposition method requires higher computation complexity and larger memory storage. In this paper, we improve the efficiency of the FHEWlike schemes by utilizing the composite NTT that performs the Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) with a composite modulus. Specifically, based on the composite NTT, we integrate modulus raising and gadget decomposition in the external product, which reduces the number of NTTs required in the blind rotation from 2(dg + 1)n to 2(⌈dg⌉/2 + 1)n. Furthermore, we develop a modulus packing technique that uses the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) and composite NTT to bootstrap multiple LWE ciphertexts through one blind rotation process.We implement the bootstrapping algorithms and evaluate the performance on various benchmark computations using both binary and ternary secret keys. Our results of the single bootstrapping process indicate that the proposed approach achieves speedups of up to 1.7 x, and reduces the size of the blind rotation key by 50% under specific parameters. Finally, we instantiate two ciphertexts in the packing procedure, and the experimental results show that our technique is around 1.5 x faster than the two bootstrapping processes under the 127-bit security level.