International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Sarai Eilebrecht


Chosen-Ciphertext Secure Dual-Receiver Encryption in the Standard Model Based on Post-Quantum Assumptions
Dual-receiver encryption (DRE) is a special form of public key encryption (PKE) that allows a sender to encrypt a message for two recipients. Without further properties, the difference between DRE and PKE is only syntactical. One such important property is soundness, which requires that no ciphertext can be constructed such that the recipients decrypt to different plaintexts. Many applications rely on this property in order to realize more complex protocols or primitives. In addition many of these applications explicitly avoid the usage of the random oracle, which poses an additional requirement on a DRE construction. We show that all of the IND-CCA2 secure standard model DRE constructions based on post-quantum assumptions fall short of augmenting the constructions with soundness and describe attacks thereon. We then give an overview over all applications of IND-CCA2 secure DRE, group them into generic (i. e., applications using DRE as black-box) and non-generic applications and demonstrate that all generic ones require either soundness or public verifiability. Conclusively, we identify the gap of IND-CCA2 secure DRE constructions with soundness based on post-quantum assumptions in the standard model. In order to fill this gap we provide two direct IND-CCA2 secure DRE constructions based on the standard post-quantum assumptions, Normal Form Learning With Errors (NLWE) and Learning Paritiy with Noise (LPN).
Sender-binding Key Encapsulation
Secure communication is gained by combining encryption with authentication. In real-world applications encryption commonly takes the form of KEM-DEM hybrid encryption, which is combined with ideal authentication. The pivotal question is how weak the employed key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) is allowed to be to still yield universally composable (UC) secure communication when paired with symmetric encryption and ideal authentication. This question has so far been addressed for public-key encryption (PKE) only, showing that encryption does not need to be stronger than sender-binding CPA, which binds the CPA secure ciphertext non-malleably to the sender ID. For hybrid encryption, prior research unanimously reaches for CCA2 secure encryption which is unnecessarily strong. Answering this research question is vital to develop more efficient and feasible protocols for real-world secure communication and thus enable more communication to be conducted securely. We use ideas from the PKE setting to develop new answers for hybrid encryption in this paper. This allows us to develop a new and significantly weaker security notion—sender-binding CPA for KEMs—which is still strong enough for secure communication. By using game-based notions as building blocks, we attain secure communication in the form of ideal functionalities with proofs in the UC-framework. Secure communication is reached in both the classic as well as session context by adding authentication and one-time and replayable CCA secure symmetric encryption respectively. We furthermore provide an efficient post-quantum secure LWE-based construction in the standard model giving a first indication of the real-world benefit resulting from our new security notion. Overall we manage to make significant progress on discovering the minimal security requirements for hybrid encryption components to facilitate secure communication.