International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Marloes Venema


Using Predicate Extension for Predicate Encryption to Generically Obtain Chosen-Ciphertext Security and Signatures
Marloes Venema Leon Botros
<p>Predicate encryption (PE) is a type of public-key encryption that captures many useful primitives such as attribute-based encryption (ABE). Although much progress has been made to generically achieve security against chosen-plaintext attacks (CPA) efficiently, in practice, we also require security against chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCA). Because achieving CCA-security on a case-by-case basis is a complicated task, several generic conversion methods have been proposed, which typically target different subclasses of PE such as ciphertext-policy ABE. As is common, such conversion methods may sacrifice some efficiency. Notably, for ciphertext-policy ABE, all proposed generic transformations incur a significant decryption overhead. Furthermore, depending on the setting in which PE is used, we may also want to require that messages are signed. To do this, predicate signature schemes can be used. However, such schemes provide a strong notion of privacy for the signer, which may be stronger than necessary for some practical settings at the cost of efficiency.</p><p>In this work, we propose the notion of predicate extension, which transforms the predicate used in a PE scheme to include one additional attribute, in both the keys and the ciphertexts. Using predicate extension, we can generically obtain CCA-security and signatures from a CPA-secure PE scheme. For the CCA-security transform, we observe that predicate extension implies a two-step approach to achieving CCA-security. This insight broadens the applicability of existing transforms for specific subclasses of PE to cover all PE. We also propose a new transform that incurs slightly less overhead than existing transforms. Furthermore, we show that predicate extension allows us to create a new type of signatures, which we call PE-based signatures. PE-based signatures are weaker than typical predicate signatures in the sense that they do not provide privacy for the signer. Nevertheless, such signatures may be more suitable for some practical settings owing to their efficiency or reduced interactivity. Lastly, to show that predicate extensions may facilitate a more efficient way to achieve CCA-security generically than existing methods, we propose a novel predicate-extension transformation for a large class of pairing-based PE, covered by the pair and predicate encodings frameworks. In particular, this yields the most efficient generic CCA-conversion for ciphertext-policy ABE.</p>
GLUE: Generalizing Unbounded Attribute-Based Encryption for Flexible Efficiency Trade-Offs
Marloes Venema Greg Alpár
Ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption is a versatile primitive that has been considered extensively to securely manage data in practice. Especially completely unbounded schemes are attractive, because they do not restrict the sets of attributes and policies. So far, any such schemes that support negations in the access policy or that have online/offline extensions have an inefficient decryption algorithm. In this work, we propose GLUE (Generalized, Large-universe, Unbounded and Expressive), which is a novel scheme that allows for the efficient implementation of the decryption while allowing the support of both negations and online/offline extensions. We achieve these properties simultaneously by uncovering an underlying dependency between encryption and decryption, which allows for a flexible trade-off in their efficiency. For the security proof, we devise a new technique that enables us to generalize multiple existing schemes. As a result, we obtain a completely unbounded scheme supporting negations that, to the best of our knowledge, outperforms all existing such schemes in the decryption algorithm.
ABE Squared: Accurately Benchmarking Efficiency of Attribute-Based Encryption
Measuring efficiency is difficult. In the last decades, several works have contributed in the quest to successfully determine and compare the efficiency of pairing-based attribute-based encryption (ABE) schemes. However, many of these works are limited: they use little to no optimizations, or use underlying pairingfriendly elliptic curves that do not provide sufficient security anymore. Hence, using these works to benchmark ABE schemes does not yield accurate results. Furthermore, most ABE design papers focus on the efficiency of one important aspect. For instance, a new scheme may aim to have a fast decryption algorithm. Upon realizing this goal, the designer compares the new scheme with existing ones, demonstrating its dominance in this particular aspect. Although this approach is intuitive and might seem fair, the way in which this comparison is done might be biased. For instance, the schemes that are compared with the new scheme may be optimized with respect to another aspect, and appear in the comparison consequently inferior.In this work, we present a framework for accurately benchmarking efficiency of ABE: ABE Squared. In particular, we focus on uncovering the multiple layers of optimization that are relevant to the implementation of ABE schemes. Moreover, we focus on making any comparison fairer by considering the influence of the potential design goals on any optimizations. On the lowest layer, we consider the available optimized arithmetic provided by state-of-the-art cryptographic libraries. On the higher layers, we consider the choice of elliptic curve, the order of the computations, and importantly, the instantiation of the scheme on the chosen curves. Additionally, we show that especially the higher-level optimizations are dependent on the goal of the designer, e.g. optimization of the decryption algorithm. To compare schemes more transparently, we develop this framework, in which ABE schemes can be justifiably optimized and compared by taking into account the possible goals of a designer. To meet these goals, we also introduce manual, heuristic type-conversion techniques where existing techniques fall short. Finally, to illustrate the effectiveness of ABE Squared, we implement several schemes and provide all relevant benchmarks. These show that the design goal influences the optimization approaches, which in turn influence the overall efficiency of the implementations. Importantly, these demonstrate that the schemes also compare differently than existing works previously suggested.