High-order Table-based Conversion Algorithms and Masking Lattice-based Encryption
Masking is the main countermeasure against side-channel attacks on embedded devices. For cryptographic algorithms that combine Boolean and arithmetic masking, one must therefore convert between the two types of masking, without leaking additional information to the attacker. In this paper we describe a new high-order conversion algorithm between Boolean and arithmetic masking, based on table recomputation, and provably secure in the ISW probing model. We show that our technique is particularly efficient for masking structured LWE encryption schemes such as Kyber and Saber. In particular, for Kyber IND-CPA decryption, we obtain an order of magnitude improvement compared to existing techniques.
High-order Polynomial Comparison and Masking Lattice-based Encryption
The main protection against side-channel attacks consists in computing every function with multiple shares via the masking countermeasure. For IND-CCA secure lattice-based encryption schemes, the masking of the decryption algorithm requires the high-order computation of a polynomial comparison. In this paper, we describe and evaluate a number of different techniques for such high-order comparison, always with a security proof in the ISW probing model. As an application, we describe the full high-order masking of the NIST standard Kyber, with a concrete implementation on ARM Cortex M architecture, and a t-test evaluation.