International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Yi Liu


Robust Publicly Verifiable Covert Security: Limited Information Leakage and Guaranteed Correctness with Low Overhead
Protocols with \emph{publicly verifiable covert (PVC) security} offer high efficiency and an appealing feature: a covert party may deviate from the protocol, but with a probability (e.g., $90\%$, referred to as the \emph{deterrence factor}), the honest party can identify this deviation and expose it using a publicly verifiable certificate. These protocols are particularly suitable for practical applications involving reputation-conscious parties. However, in the cases where misbehavior goes undetected (e.g., with a probability of $10\%$), \emph{no security guarantee is provided for the honest party}, potentially resulting in a complete loss of input privacy and output correctness. In this paper, we tackle this critical problem by presenting a highly effective solution. We introduce and formally define an enhanced notion called \emph{robust PVC security}, such that even if the misbehavior remains undetected, the malicious party can only gain an additional $1$-bit of information about the honest party's input while maintaining the correctness of the output. We propose a novel approach leveraging \emph{dual execution} and \emph{time-lock puzzles} to design a robust PVC-secure two-party protocol with \emph{low overhead} (depending on the deterrence factor). For instance, with a deterrence factor of $90\%$, our robust PVC-secure protocol incurs \emph{only additional ${\sim}10\%$ overhead} compared to the state-of-the-art PVC-secure protocol. Given the stronger security guarantees with low overhead, our protocol is highly suitable for practical applications of secure two-party computation.
Making Private Function Evaluation Safer, Faster, and Simpler 📺
In the problem of two-party \emph{private function evaluation} (PFE), one party $P_A$ holds a \emph{private function} $f$ and (optionally) a private input $x_A$, while the other party $P_B$ possesses a private input $x_B$. Their goal is to evaluate $f$ on $x_A$ and $x_B$, and one or both parties may obtain the evaluation result $f(x_A, x_B)$ while no other information beyond $f(x_A, x_B)$ is revealed. In this paper, we revisit the two-party PFE problem and provide several enhancements. We propose the \emph{first} constant-round actively secure PFE protocol with linear complexity. Based on this result, we further provide the \emph{first} constant-round publicly verifiable covertly (PVC) secure PFE protocol with linear complexity to gain better efficiency. For instance, when the deterrence factor is $\epsilon = 1/2$, compared to the passively secure protocol, its communication cost is very close and its computation cost is around $2.6\times$. In our constructions, as a by-product, we design a specific protocol for proving that a list of ElGamal ciphertexts is derived from an \emph{extended permutation} performed on a given list of elements. It should be noted that this protocol greatly improves the previous result and may be of independent interest. In addition, a reusability property is added to our two PFE protocols. Namely, if the same function $f$ is involved in multiple executions of the protocol between $P_A$ and $P_B$, then the protocol could be executed more efficiently from the second execution. Moreover, we further extend this property to be \emph{global}, such that it supports multiple executions for the same $f$ in a reusable fashion between $P_A$ and \emph{arbitrary} parties playing the role of $P_B$.


Junzuo Lai (1)
Yi Liu (2)
Xianrui Qin (1)
Qi Wang (2)
Jian Weng (1)
Anjia Yang (1)
Siu-Ming Yiu (1)