International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Xiangyu Liu


EKE Meets Tight Security in the Universally Composable Framework
(Asymmetric) Password-based Authenticated Key Exchange ((a)PAKE) protocols allow two parties establish a session key with a pre-shared low-entropy password. In this paper, we show how Encrypted Key Exchange (EKE) compiler [Bellovin and Merritt, S&P 1992] meets tight security in the Universally Composable (UC) framework. We propose a strong 2DH variant of EKE, denoted by 2DH-EKE, and prove its tight security in the UC framework based on the CDH assumption. The efficiency of 2DH-EKE is comparable to the original EKE, with only O(\lambda) bits growth in communication (\lambda the security parameter), and two (resp., one) extra exponentiation in computation for client (resp., server). We also develop an asymmetric PAKE scheme 2DH-aEKE from 2DH-EKE. The security reduction loss of 2DH-aEKE is N, the total number of client-server pairs. With a meta-reduction, we formally prove that such a factor N is inevitable in aPAKE. Namely, our 2DH-aEKE meets the optimal security loss. As a byproduct, we further apply our technique to PAKE protocols like SPAKE2 and PPK in the relaxed UC framework, resulting in their 2DH variants with tight security from the CDH assumption.
Fine-grained Verifier NIZK and Its Applications
In this paper, we propose a new type of non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK), called Fine-grained Verifier NIZK (FV-NIZK), which provides more flexible and more fine-grained verifiability of proofs than standard NIZK that supports public verifiability and designated-verifier NIZK (DV-NIZK) that supports private verifiability. FV-NIZK has two statistically equivalent verification approaches: -- a master verification using the master secret key msk; -- a fine-grained verification using a derived secret key sk_d, which is derived from msk w.r.t. d (which may stand for user identity, email address, vector, etc.). We require unbounded simulation soundness (USS) of FV-NIZK to hold, even if an adversary obtains derived secret keys sk_d with d of its choices, and define proof pseudorandomness which stipulates the pseudorandomness of proofs for adversaries that are not given any secret key. We present two instantiations of FV-NIZK for linear subspace languages, based on the matrix decisional Diffie-Hellman (MDDH) assumption. One of the FV-NIZK instantiations is pairing-free and achieves almost tight USS and proof pseudorandomness. We illustrate the usefulness of FV-NIZK by showing two applications and obtain the following pairing-free schemes: -- the first almost tightly multi-challenge CCA (mCCA)-secure inner-product functional encryption (IPFE) scheme without pairings; -- the first public-key encryption (PKE) scheme that reconciles the inherent contradictions between public verifiability and anonymity. We formalize such PKE as Fine-grained Verifiable PKE (FV-PKE), which derives a special key from the decryption secret key, such that for those who obtain the derived key, they can check the validity of ciphertexts but the anonymity is lost from their views (CCA-security still holds for them), while for others who do not get the derived key, they cannot do the validity check but the anonymity holds for them. Our FV-PKE scheme achieves almost tight mCCA-security for adversaries who obtain the derived keys, and achieves almost tight ciphertext pseudorandomness (thus anonymity) for others who do not get any derived key.
Scalable Multi-party Private Set Union from Multi-Query Secret-Shared Private Membership Test
Xiang Liu Ying Gao
Multi-party private set union (MPSU) allows \(k(k\geq 3)\) parties, each holding a dataset of known size, to compute the union of their sets without revealing any additional information. Although two-party PSU has made rapid progress in recent years, applying its effective techniques to the multi-party setting would render information leakage and thus cannot be directly extended. Existing MPSU protocols heavily rely on computationally expensive public-key operations or generic secure multi-party computation techniques, which are not scalable. In this work, we present a new efficient framework of MPSU from multi-party secret-shared shuffle and a newly introduced protocol called multi-query secret-shared private membership test (mq-ssPMT). Our MPSU is mainly based on symmetric-key operations and is secure against any semi-honest adversary that does not corrupt the leader and clients simultaneously. We also propose new frameworks for computing other multi-party private set operations (MPSO), such as the intersection, and the cardinality of the union and the intersection, meeting the same security requirements. We demonstrate the scalability of our MPSU protocol with an implementation and a comparison with the state-of-the-art MPSU. Experiments show that when computing on datasets of \(2^{10}\) elements, our protocol is \(109\times\) faster than the state-of-the-art MPSU, and the improvement becomes more significant as the set size increases. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first protocol that reports on large-size experiments. For 7 parties with datasets of \(2^{20}\) elements each, our protocol requires only 46 seconds.
Two-Pass Authenticated Key Exchange with Explicit Authentication and Tight Security 📺
We propose a generic construction of 2-pass authenticated key exchange (AKE) scheme with explicit authentication from key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) and signature (SIG) schemes. We improve the security model due to Gjosteen and Jager [Crypto2018] to a stronger one. In the strong model, if a replayed message is accepted by some user, the authentication of AKE is broken. We define a new security notion named ''IND-mCPA with adaptive reveals'' for KEM. When the underlying KEM has such a security and SIG has unforgeability with adaptive corruptions, our construction of AKE equipped with counters as states is secure in the strong model, and stateless AKE without counter is secure in the traditional model. We also present a KEM possessing tight ''IND-mCPA security with adaptive reveals'' from the Computation Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model. When the generic construction of AKE is instantiated with the KEM and the available SIG by Gjosteen and Jager [Crypto2018], we obtain the first practical 2-pass AKE with tight security and explicit authentication. In addition, the integration of the tightly IND-mCCA secure KEM (derived from PKE by Han et al. [Crypto2019]) and the tightly secure SIG by Bader et al. [TCC2015] results in the first tightly secure 2-pass AKE with explicit authentication in the standard model.


Ying Gao (1)
Dawu Gu (3)
Shuai Han (2)
Shengli Liu (3)
Xiangyu Liu (4)
Jian Weng (1)