International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Tomoki Moriya

ORCID: 0000-0002-7845-4737


M-SIDH and MD-SIDH: countering SIDH attacks by masking information
The SIDH protocol is an isogeny-based key exchange protocol using supersingular isogenies, designed by Jao and De Feo in 2011. The protocol underlies the SIKE algorithm which advanced to the fourth round of NIST's post-quantum standardization project in May 2022. The algorithm was considered very promising: indeed the most significant attacks against SIDH were meet-in-the-middle variants with exponential complexity, and torsion point attacks which only applied to unbalanced parameters (and in particular, not to SIKE). This security picture dramatically changed in August 2022 with new attacks by Castryck-Decru, Maino-Martindale and Robert. Like prior attacks on unbalanced versions, these new attacks exploit torsion point information provided in the SIDH protocol. Crucially however, the new attacks embed the isogeny problem into a similar isogeny problem in higher dimension to also affect the balanced parameters. As a result of these works, the SIKE algorithm is now fully broken both in theory and in practice. Given the considerable interest attracted by SIKE and related protocols in recent years, it is natural to seek countermeasures to the new attacks. In this paper, we introduce two such countermeasures based on partially hiding the isogeny degrees and torsion point information in SIDH protocol. We present a preliminary analysis of the resulting schemes including non trivial generalizations of prior attacks. Based on this analysis we suggest parameters for our M-SIDH variant with public key sizes of 4434, 7037 and 9750 bytes respectively for $\lambda=128$, 192 and 256 bits of security.
Radical Isogenies on Montgomery Curves 📺
Hiroshi Onuki Tomoki Moriya
We work on some open problems in radical isogenies. Radical isogenies are formulas to compute chains of N-isogenies for small N and proposed by Castryck, Decru, and Vercauteren in Asiacrypt 2020. These formulas do not need to generate a point of order N generating the kernel and accelerate some isogeny-based cryptosystems like CSIDH. On the other hand, since these formulas use Tate normal forms, these need to transform Tate normal forms to curves with efficient arithmetic, e.g., Montgomery curves. In this paper, we propose radical-isogeny formulas of degrees 3 and 4 on Montgomery curves. Our formulas compute some values determining Montgomery curves, from which one can efficiently recover Montgomery coefficients. And our formulas are more efficient for some cryptosystems than the original radical isogenies. In addition, we prove a conjecture left open by Castryck et al. that relates to radical isogenies of degree 4.
SiGamal: A supersingular isogeny-based PKE and its application to a PRF 📺
We propose two new supersingular isogeny-based public key encryptions: SiGamal and C-SiGamal. They were developed by giving an additional point of the order $2^r$ to CSIDH. SiGamal is similar to ElGamal encryption, while C-SiGamal is a compressed version of SiGamal. We prove that SiGamal and C-SiGamal are IND-CPA secure without using hash functions under a new assumption: the P-CSSDDH assumption. This assumption comes from the expectation that no efficient algorithm can distinguish between a random point and a point that is the image of a public point under a hidden isogeny. Next, we propose a Naor-Reingold type pseudo random function (PRF) based on SiGamal. If the P-CSSDDH assumption and the CSSDDH$^*$ assumption, which guarantees the security of CSIDH that uses a prime $p$ in the setting of SiGamal, hold, then our proposed function is a pseudo random function. Moreover, we estimate that the computational costs of group actions to compute our proposed PRF are about $\sqrt{\frac{8T}{3\pi}}$ times that of the group actions in CSIDH, where $T$ is the Hamming weight of the input of the PRF. Finally, we experimented with group actions in SiGamal and C-SiGamal. The computational costs of group actions in SiGamal-512 with a $256$-bit plaintext message space were about $2.62$ times that of a group action in CSIDH-512.