Proof-Carrying Data From Arithmetized Random Oracles
Proof-carrying data (PCD) is a powerful cryptographic primitive that allows mutually distrustful parties to perform distributed computation in an efficiently verifiable manner. Known constructions of PCD are obtained by recursively-composing SNARKs or related primitives. SNARKs with desirable properties such as transparent setup are constructed in the random oracle model. However, using such SNARKs to construct PCD requires heuristically instantiating the oracle and using it in a non-black-box way. Chen, Chiesa and Spooner [Eurocrypt'22] constructed SNARKs in the low-degree random oracle model, circumventing this issue, but instantiating their model in the real world appears difficult. In this paper, we introduce a new model: the arithmetized random oracle model (AROM). We provide a plausible standard-model (software-only) instantiation of the AROM, and we construct PCD in the AROM, given only a standard-model collision-resistant hash function. Furthermore, our PCD construction is for arbitrary-depth compliance predicates. We obtain our PCD construction by showing how to construct SNARKs in the AROM for computations that query the oracle, given an accumulation scheme for oracle queries in the AROM. We then construct such an accumulation scheme for the AROM. To prove the security of cryptographic constructs in the AROM, we give a non-trivial and efficient "lazy sampling" algorithm (a "stateful emulator") for the ARO up to some error. We obtain this construction by developing a toolkit for analyzing cryptographic constructions in the AROM, which uses algebraic query complexity techniques and the combinatorial nullstellensatz.
Linear-Size Constant-Query IOPs for Delegating Computation
We study the problem of delegating computations via interactive proofs that can be probabilistically checked. Known as interactive oracle proofs (IOPs), these proofs extend probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs) to multi-round protocols, and have received much attention due to their application to constructing cryptographic proofs (such as succinct non-interactive arguments). The relevant complexity measures for IOPs in this context are prover and verifier time, and query complexity.We construct highly efficient IOPs for a rich class of nondeterministic algebraic computations, which includes succinct versions of arithmetic circuit satisfiability and rank-one constraint system (R1CS) satisfiability. For a time-T computation, we obtain prover arithmetic complexity $$O(T \log T)$$ and verifier complexity polylog(T). These IOPs are the first to simultaneously achieve the state of the art in prover complexity, due to , and in verifier complexity, due to . We also improve upon the query complexity of both schemes.The efficiency of our prover is a result of our highly optimized proof length; in particular, ours is the first construction that simultaneously achieves linear-size proofs and polylogarithmic-time verification, regardless of query complexity.