International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Quan Quan Tan


Revisiting Higher-Order Differential-Linear Attacks from an Algebraic Perspective
The Higher-order Differential-Linear (HDL) attack was introduced by Biham \textit{et al.} at FSE 2005, where a linear approximation was appended to a Higher-order Differential (HD) transition. It is a natural generalization of the Differential-Linear (DL) attack. Due to some practical restrictions, however, HDL cryptanalysis has unfortunately attracted much less attention compared to its DL counterpart since its proposal. In this paper, we revisit HD/HDL cryptanalysis from an algebraic perspective and provide two novel tools for detecting possible HD/HDL distinguishers, including: (a) Higher-order Algebraic Transitional Form (HATF) for probabilistic HD/HDL attacks; (b) Differential Supporting Function (\DSF) for deterministic HD attacks. In general, the HATF can estimate the biases of $\ell^{th}$-order HDL approximations with complexity $\mathcal{O}(2^{\ell+d2^\ell})$ where $d$ is the algebraic degree of the function studied. If the function is quadratic, the complexity can be further reduced to $\mathcal{O}(2^{3.8\ell})$. HATF is therefore very useful in HDL cryptanalysis for ciphers with quadratic round functions, such as \ascon and \xoodyak. \DSF provides a convenient way to find good linearizations on the input of a permutation, which facilitates the search for HD distinguishers. Unsurprisingly, HD/HDL attacks have the potential to be more effective than their simpler differential/DL counterparts. Using HATF, we found many HDL approximations for round-reduced \ascon and \xoodyak initializations, with significantly larger biases than DL ones. For instance, there are deterministic 2$^{nd}$-order/4$^{th}$-order HDL approximations for \ascon/\xoodyak initializations, respectively (which is believed to be impossible in the simple DL case). We derived highly biased HDL approximations for 5-round \ascon up to 8$^{th}$ order, which improves the complexity of the distinguishing attack on 5-round \ascon from $2^{16}$ to $2^{12}$ calls. We also proposed HDL approximations for 6-round \ascon and 5-round \xoodyak (under the single-key model), which couldn't be reached with simple DL so far. For key recovery, HDL attacks are also more efficient than DL attacks, thanks to the larger biases of HDL approximations. Additionally, HATF works well for DL (1$^{st}$-order HDL) attacks and some well-known DL biases of \ascon and \xoodyak that could only be obtained experimentally before can now be predicted theoretically. With \DSF, we propose a new distinguishing attack on 8-round \ascon permutation, with a complexity of $2^{48}$. Also, we provide a new zero-sum distinguisher for the full 12-round \ascon permutation with $2^{55}$ time/data complexity. We highlight that our cryptanalyses do not threaten the security of \ascon or \xoodyak.
Mind Your Path: On (Key) Dependencies in Differential Characteristics
Thomas Peyrin Quan Quan Tan
Cryptanalysts have been looking for differential characteristics in ciphers for decades and it remains unclear how the subkey values and more generally the Markov assumption impacts exactly their probability estimation. There were theoretical efforts considering some simple linear relationships between differential characteristics and subkey values, but the community has not yet explored many possible nonlinear dependencies one can find in differential characteristics. Meanwhile, the overwhelming majority of cryptanalysis works still assume complete independence between the cipher rounds. We give here a practical framework and a corresponding tool to investigate all such linear or nonlinear effects and we show that they can have an important impact on the security analysis of many ciphers. Surprisingly, this invalidates many differential characteristics that appeared in the literature in the past years: we have checked differential characteristics from 8 articles (4 each for both SKINNY and GIFT) and most of these published paths are impossible or working only for a very small proportion of the key space. We applied our method to SKINNY and GIFT, but we expect more impossibilities for other ciphers. To showcase our advances in the dependencies analysis, in the case of SKINNY we are able to obtain a more accurate probability distribution of a differential characteristic with respect to the keys (with practical verification when it is computationally feasible). Our work indicates that newly proposed differential characteristics should now come with an analysis of how the key values and the Markov assumption might or might not affect/invalidate them. n this direction, more constructively, we include a proof of concept of how one can incorporate additional constraints into Constraint Programming so that the search for differential characteristics can avoid (to a large extent) differential characteristics that are actually impossible due to dependency issues our tool detected.
A Deeper Look at Machine Learning-Based Cryptanalysis 📺
At CRYPTO’19, Gohr proposed a new cryptanalysis strategy based on the utilisation of machine learning algorithms. Using deep neural networks, he managed to build a neural based distinguisher that surprisingly surpassed state-of-the-art cryptanalysis efforts on one of the versions of the well studied NSA block cipher SPECK (this distinguisher could in turn be placed in a larger key recovery attack). While this work opens new possibilities for machine learning-aided cryptanalysis, it remains unclear how this distinguisher actually works and what information is the machine learning algorithm deducing. The attacker is left with a black-box that does not tell much about the nature of the possible weaknesses of the algorithm tested, while hope is thin as interpretability of deep neural networks is a well-known difficult task. In this article, we propose a detailed analysis and thorough explanations of the inherent workings of this new neural distinguisher. First, we studied the classified sets and tried to find some patterns that could guide us to better understand Gohr’s results. We show with experiments that the neural distinguisher generally relies on the differential distribution on the ciphertext pairs, but also on the differential distribution in penultimate and antepenultimate rounds. In order to validate our findings, we construct a distinguisher for SPECK cipher based on pure cryptanalysis, without using any neural network, that achieves basically the same accuracy as Gohr’s neural distinguisher and with the same efficiency (therefore improving over previous non-neural based distinguishers). Moreover, as another approach, we provide a machine learning-based distinguisher that strips down Gohr’s deep neural network to a bare minimum. We are able to remain very close to Gohr’s distinguishers’ accuracy using simple standard machine learning tools. In particular, we show that Gohr’s neural distinguisher is in fact inherently building a very good approximation of the Differential Distribution Table (DDT) of the cipher during the learning phase, and using that information to directly classify ciphertext pairs. This result allows a full interpretability of the distinguisher and represents on its own an interesting contribution towards interpretability of deep neural networks. Finally, we propose some method to improve over Gohr’s work and possible new neural distinguishers settings. All our results are confirmed with experiments we have conducted on SPECK block cipher.
Exploring Differential-Based Distinguishers and Forgeries for ASCON 📺
Automated methods have become crucial components when searching for distinguishers against symmetric-key cryptographic primitives. While MILP and SAT solvers are among the most popular tools to model ciphers and perform cryptanalysis, other methods with different performance profiles are appearing. In this article, we explore the use of Constraint Programming (CP) for differential cryptanalysis on the Ascon authenticated encryption family (first choice of the CAESAR lightweight applications portfolio and current finalist of the NIST LWC competition) and its internal permutation. We first present a search methodology for finding differential characteristics for Ascon with CP, which can easily find the best differential characteristics already reported by the Ascon designers. This shows the capability of CP in generating easily good differential results compared to dedicated search heuristics. Based on our tool, we also parametrize the search strategies in CP to generate other differential characteristics with the goal of forming limited-birthday distinguishers for 4, 5, 6 and 7 rounds and rectangle attacks for 4 and 5 rounds of the Ascon internal permutation. We propose a categorization of the distinguishers into black-box and non-black-box to better differentiate them as they are often useful in different contexts. We also obtained limited-birthday distinguishers which represent currently the best known distinguishers for 4, 5 and 6 rounds under the category of non-black-box distinguishers. Leveraging again our tool, we have generated forgery attacks against both reduced-rounds Ascon-128 and Ascon-128a, improving over the best reported results at the time of writing. Finally, using the best differential characteristic we have found for 2 rounds, we could also improve a recent attack on round-reduced Ascon-Hash.
Improved Heuristics for Short Linear Programs 📺
Quan Quan Tan Thomas Peyrin
In this article, we propose new heuristics for minimising the amount of XOR gates required to compute a system of linear equations in GF(2). We first revisit the well known Boyar-Peralta strategy and argue that a proper randomisation process during the selection phases can lead to great improvements. We then propose new selection criteria and explain their rationale. Our new methods outperform state-of-the-art algorithms such as Paar or Boyar-Peralta (or open synthesis tools such as Yosys) when tested on random matrices with various densities. They can be applied to matrices of reasonable sizes (up to about 32 × 32). Notably, we provide a new implementation record for the matrix underlying the MixColumns function of the AES block cipher, requiring only 94 XORs.