Resistance of SNOW-V against Fast Correlation Attacks
SNOW-V is a new member in the SNOW family of stream ciphers, hoping to be competitive in the 5G mobile communication system. In this paper, we study the resistance of SNOW-V against bitwise fast correlation attacks by constructing bitwise linear approximations. First, we propose and summarize some efficient algorithms using the slice-like techniques to compute the bitwise linear approximations of certain types of composition functions composed of basic operations like ⊞, ⊕, Permutation, and S-box, which have been widely used in word-oriented stream ciphers such as SNOW-like ciphers. Then, using these algorithms, we find a number of stronger linear approximations for the FSM of the two variants of SNOW-V given in the design document, i.e., SNOW-V σ0 and SNOW-V⊞8, ⊞8. For SNOW-V σ0, where there is no byte-wise permutation, we find some bitwise linear approximations of the FSM with the SEI (Squared Euclidean Imbalance) around 2−37.34 and mount a bitwise fast correlation attack with the time complexity 2251.93 and memory complexity 2244, given 2103.83 keystream outputs, which improves greatly the results in the design document. For SNOW-V⊞8, ⊞8, where both of the two 32-bit adders in the FSM are replaced by 8-bit adders, we find our best bitwise linear approximations of the FSM with the SEI 2−174.14, while the best byte-wise linear approximation in the design document of SNOW-V has the SEI 2−214.80. Finally, we study the security of a closer variant of SNOW-V, denoted by SNOW-V⊞32, ⊞8, where only the 32-bit adder used for updating the first register is replaced by the 8-bit adder, while everything else remains identical. For SNOW-V⊞32, ⊞8, we derive many mask tuples yielding the bitwise linear approximations of the FSM with the SEI larger than 2−184. Using these linear approximations, we mount a fast correlation attack with the time complexity 2377.01 and a memory complexity 2363, given 2253.73 keystream outputs. Note that neither of our attack threatens the security of SNOW-V. We hope our research could further help in understanding bitwise linear approximation attacks and also the structure of SNOW-like stream ciphers.
Comparing Large-unit and Bitwise Linear Approximations of SNOW 2.0 and SNOW 3G and Related Attacks
In this paper, we study and compare the byte-wise and bitwise linear approximations of SNOW 2.0 and SNOW 3G, and present a fast correlation attack on SNOW 3G by using our newly found bitwise linear approximations. On one side, we reconsider the relation between the large-unit linear approximation and the smallerunit/ bitwise ones derived from the large-unit one, showing that approximations on large-unit alphabets have advantages over all the smaller-unit/bitwise ones in linear attacks. But then on the other side, by comparing the byte-wise and bitwise linear approximations of SNOW 2.0 and SNOW 3G respectively, we have found many concrete examples of 8-bit linear approximations whose certain 1-dimensional/bitwise linear approximations have almost the same SEI (Squared Euclidean Imbalance) as that of the original 8-bit ones. That is, each of these byte-wise linear approximations is dominated by a single bitwise approximation, and thus the whole SEI is not essentially larger than the SEI of the dominating single bitwise approximation. Since correlation attacks can be more efficiently implemented using bitwise approximations rather than large-unit approximations, improvements over the large-unit linear approximation attacks are possible for SNOW 2.0 and SNOW 3G. For SNOW 3G, we make a careful search of the bitwise masks for the linear approximations of the FSM and obtain many mask tuples which yield high correlations. By using these bitwise linear approximations, we mount a fast correlation attack to recover the initial state of the LFSR with the time/memory/data/pre-computation complexities all upper bounded by 2174.16, improving slightly the previous best one which used an 8-bit (vectorized) linear approximation in a correlation attack with all the complexities upper bounded by 2176.56. Though not a significant improvement, our research results illustrate that we have an opportunity to achieve improvement over the large-unit attacks by using bitwise linear approximations in a linear approximation attack, and provide a newinsight on the relation between large-unit and bitwise linear approximations.
Fast Correlation Attacks on Grain-like Small State Stream Ciphers
In this paper, we study the security of Grain-like small state stream ciphers by fast correlation attacks, which are commonly regarded as classical cryptanalytic methods against LFSR-based stream ciphers. We extend the cascaded structure adopted in such primitives in general and show how to restore the full internal state part-by-part if the non-linear combining function meets some characteristic. As a case study, we present a key recovery attack against Fruit, a tweaked version of Sprout that employs key-dependent state updating in the keystream generation phase. Our attack requires 262.8 Fruit encryptions and 222.3 keystream bits to determine the 80-bit secret key. Practical simulations on a small-scale version confirmed our results.