International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

IACR News item: 23 June 2022

Prasanna Ravi, Bolin Yang, Shivam Bhasin, Fan Zhang, Anupam Chattopadhyay
ePrint Report ePrint Report
In this work, we present the first fault injection analysis of the Number Theoretic Transform (NTT). The NTT is an integral computation unit, widely used for polynomial multiplication in several structured lattice-based key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) and digital signature schemes. We identify a critical single fault vulnerability in the NTT, which severely reduces the entropy of its output. This in turn enables us to perform a wide-range of attacks applicable to lattice-based KEMs as well as signature schemes. In particular, we demonstrate novel key recovery and message recovery attacks targeting the key generation and encryption procedure of Kyber KEM. We also propose novel existential forgery attacks targeting deterministic and probabilistic signing procedure of Dilithium, followed by a novel verification bypass attack targeting its verification procedure. All proposed exploits are demonstrated with high success rate using electromagnetic fault injection on state-of-the-art implementations of Kyber and Dilithium, from the open-source pqm4 library on the ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller.

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