International Association for Cryptologic Research

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23 January 2018
ePrint Report How to validate the secret of a Ring Learning with Errors (RLWE) key Jintai Ding, Saraswathy RV, Saed Alsayigh, Crystal Clough
We use the signal function from RLWE key exchange to derive an efficient zero knowledge authentication protocol to validate an RLWE key $p=as+e$ with secret $s$ and error $e$ in the Random Oracle Model (ROM). With this protocol, a verifier can validate that a key $p$ presented to him by a prover $P$ is of the form $p=as+e$ with $s,e$ small and that the prover knows $s$. We accompany the description of the protocol with proof to show that it has negligible soundness and completeness error. The soundness of our protocol relies directly on the hardness of the RLWE problem. The protocol is applicable for both LWE and RLWE but we focus on the RLWE based protocol for efficiency and practicality. We also present a variant of the main protocol with a commitment scheme to avoid using the ROM.
Event date: 2 June to 10 June 2018
Event date: 16 July to 18 July 2018
Submission deadline: 30 March 2018
Notification: 21 May 2018
WireGuard (Donenfeld, NDSS 2017) is a recently proposed secure network tunnel operating at layer 3. WireGuard aims to replace existing tunnelling solutions like IPsec and OpenVPN, while requiring less code, being more secure, more performant, and easier to use. The cryptographic design of WireGuard is based on the Noise framework. It makes use of a key exchange component which combines long-term and ephemeral Diffie-Hellman values (along with optional preshared keys). This is followed by the use of the established keys in an AEAD construction to encapsulate IP packets in UDP. To date, WireGuard has received no rigorous security analysis. In this paper, we, rectify this. We first observe that, in order to prevent Key Compromise Impersonation (KCI) attacks, any analysis of WireGuard's key exchange component must take into account the first AEAD ciphertext from initiator to responder. This message effectively acts as a key confirmation and makes the key exchange component of WireGuard a 1.5 RTT protocol. However, the fact that this ciphertext is computed using the established session key rules out a proof of session key indistinguishability for WireGuard's key exchange component, limiting the degree of modularity that is achievable when analysing the protocol's security. To overcome this proof barrier, and as an alternative to performing a monolithic analysis of the entire WireGuard protocol, we add an extra message to the protocol. This is done in a minimally invasive way that does not increase the number of round trips needed by the overall WireGuard protocol. This change enables us to prove strong authentication and key indistinguishability properties for the key exchange component of WireGuard under standard cryptographic assumptions.
ePrint Report Progressive lattice sieving Thijs Laarhoven, Artur Mariano
Most algorithms for hard lattice problems are based on the principle of rank reduction: to solve a problem in a $d$-dimensional lattice, one first solves one or more problem instances in a sublattice of rank $d - 1$, and then uses this information to find a solution to the original problem. Existing lattice sieving methods, however, tackle lattice problems such as the shortest vector problem (SVP) directly, and work with the full-rank lattice from the start. Lattice sieving further seems to benefit less from starting with reduced bases than other methods, and finding an approximate solution almost takes as long as finding an exact solution. These properties currently set sieving apart from other methods.

In this work we consider a progressive approach to lattice sieving, where we gradually introduce new basis vectors only when the sieve has stabilized on the previous basis vectors. This leads to improved (heuristic) guarantees on finding approximate shortest vectors, a bigger practical impact of the quality of the basis on the run-time, better memory management, a smoother and more predictable behavior of the algorithm, and significantly faster convergence - compared to traditional approaches, we save between a factor $20$ to $40$ in the time complexity for SVP.
20 January 2018
Event date: 30 May to 1 June 2018
Submission deadline: 5 March 2018
Notification: 26 March 2018
19 January 2018
LOCATION: WILMINGTON, MA, U.S.

Position Overview

OnBoard Security delivers world-class research and consulting services in secure communications, network security architecture, PKI, and security for connected vehicles and the Internet of Things. During your paid 3-month internship, you will support research projects on a variety of cryptography topics.

Required Qualifications

Course studies in Computer Science, Mathematics, or related field with a strong record of academic performance. Master and Ph.D. students are welcomed to apply.

The intern will be conducting innovative research in at least one of the following areas:

  • Homomorphic encryption
  • Lattice based signatures
  • Group signatures and ring signatures
  • Efficient cryptographic implementations
  • Lattice-based cryptanalysis

Knowledge of the following area are considered as a strong plus:

  • NTRU and other lattice-based cryptography
  • Sage, Magma, Pari/GP, NTL, or a similar software.
  • Lattice algorithms such as BKZ, Sieving, Enumeration, etc.
  • Trusted Platform Module (TPM) and trusted computing.

Salary

  • Up to $4500/month.
  • Starting date is flexible.

Contact us

If you can picture yourself diving into lattice-based cryptography research projects as part of a great team, contact us immediately at HR@onboardsecurity.com

OnBoard Security is an equal opportunity employer - M/F/Vets/Disabled

Closing date for applications: 18 July 2018

18 January 2018
Job Posting Researcher Microsoft Research Cambridge UK
Microsoft Research Cambridge (UK) is searching for an exceptional researcher in the area of machine learning and artificial intelligence to work as part of a multidisciplinary team tackling challenging research questions. The researcher is expected to develop a programme of research in novel techniques to provide strong security and privacy guarantees for cloud-based machine learning and artificial intelligence systems. The researcher will join a project team that brings together researchers with backgrounds in machine learning, security, operating systems, and programming languages.

Experience Required:

Mandatory:

• Expert understanding of state-of-the-art machine learning and artificial intelligence

• Hands-on experience in building machine learning systems

• Interested in working in a multi-disciplinary team

• Interested in deep research with high real-world impact

• PhD or close to completion

Ideal:

• Experience in cloud services

• Experience in security and privacy

• Strong publication record or alternative relevant innovation experience

Closing date for applications: 31 March 2018

More information: https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/opportunity/researcher-security-privacy-ml/

Job Posting Postdoc in Cryptography (M/F) The University of Luxembourg

The University of Luxembourg is a multilingual, international research university.

The University of Luxembourg is looking within its Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication for a:



Postdoc in Cryptography (M/F)

- Ref: F1-50011530

- Fixed-term contract 2.5 years, full-time (40 hrs/week)

- Employee status

The post-doc will be a member of the Computer Science and Communications Research Unit (CSC) research unit within the Faculty of Science, Technology and Communication at the University of Luxembourg. Possible topics of interests are FHE, multilinear maps, public-key cryptanalysis., and side-channel attacks and countermeasures.



Profile

PhD in cryptography, with publications in major cryptographic conferences



We offer

- Personal work space at the University 

- Highly competitive salary

- Dynamic and multicultural environment



Candidates should submit the following documents:

- Motivation letter indicating your research interests.

- Curriculum vitae (including your contact address, work experience, publications).

- A short description of your PhD’s work (max 1 page).

- Contact information for 3 referees.



Please send your application online in until March 15th, 2018. Applications will be considered on receipt therefore applying before the deadline is encouraged.

Link: http://emea3.mrted.ly/1pelf

Closing date for applications: 15 March 2018

Contact: For further information please contact: Jean-Sebastien Coron

jean-sebastien.coron (at) uni.lu

More information: http://emea3.mrted.ly/1pelf

Job Posting Automotive Security & Privacy Specialist Continental Automotive Singapore Pte Ltd
Responsibilities:

• Define security tests for backend, Smartphone & Connectivity

• Develop countermeasures for detected vulnerabilities

• Develop tools to demonstrate the efficiency of the security mechanisms

• Develop and refine the Security and Privacy concept for connected services between vehicle and backend services

• Implementation of novel Security & Privacy mechanism

Requirements:

• University degree in computer science, electrical engineering or mathematics with a deep focus on security, privacy, cryptology, or similar

• In­depth Experiences with projects related to cloud security, smartphone security and backend security

• Knowledge of Security Risk Analysis methods (e.g. STRIDE)

• Knowledge of Security Source Code Analysis methods

• Knowledge of Quantum cryptography is preferred

• An application with several years of experience in the field of Automotive Security and Privacy is preferred

• Good & open communication

• Mobility to collaborate creatively in international teams

Closing date for applications:

More information: http://www.continental-jobs.com/index.php?ac=jobad&id=596247

ePrint Report A Systematic Approach To Cryptocurrency Fees Alexander Chepurnoy, Vasily Kharin, Dmitry Meshkov
This paper is devoted to the study of transaction fees in massively replicated open blockchain systems. In such systems, like Bitcoin, a snapshot of current state required for the validation of transactions is being held in the memory, which eventually becomes a scarce resource. Uncontrolled state growth can lead to security issues. We propose a modification of a transaction fee scheme based on how much additional space will be needed for the objects created as a result of transaction processing and for how long will they live in the state. We also work out the way to combine fees charged for different resources spent (bandwidth, random-access state memory, processor cycles) in a composite fee and demonstrate consistency of the approach by analyzing the statistics from Ethereum network. We show a possible implementation for state-related fee in a form of regular payments to miners.
We introduce a formal quantitative notion of ``bit security'' for a general type of cryptographic games (capturing both decision and search problems), aimed at capturing the intuition that a cryptographic primitive with $k$-bit security is as hard to break as an ideal cryptographic function requiring a brute force attack on a $k$-bit key space. Our new definition matches the notion of bit security commonly used by cryptographers and cryptanalysts when studying search (e.g., key recovery) problems, where the use of the traditional definition is well established. However, it produces a quantitatively different metric in the case of decision (indistinguishability) problems, where the use of (a straightforward generalization of) the traditional definition is more problematic and leads to a number of paradoxical situations or mismatches between theoretical/provable security and practical/common sense intuition. Key to our new definition is to consider adversaries that may explicitly declare failure of the attack. We support and justify the new definition by proving a number of technical results, including tight reductions between several standard cryptographic problems, a new hybrid theorem that preserves bit security, and an application to the security analysis of indistinguishability primitives making use of (approximate) floating point numbers. This is the first result showing that (standard precision) 53-bit floating point numbers can be used to achieve 100-bit security in the context of cryptographic primitives with general indistinguishability-based security definitions. Previous results of this type applied only to search problems, or special types of decision problems.
The distinguishing feature of the Internet of Things is that many devices get interconnected. The threat of side-channel attacks in this setting is less understood than the threat of traditional network and software exploitation attacks that are perceived to be more powerful.

This work is a case study of Thread, an emerging network and transport level stack designed to facilitate secure communication between heterogeneous IoT devices. We perform the first side-channel vulnerability analysis of the Thread networking stack. We leverage various network mechanisms to trigger manipulations of the security material or to get access to the network credentials. We choose the most feasible attack vector to build a complete attack that combines network specific mechanisms and Differential Electromagnetic Analysis. When successfully applied on a Thread network, the attack gives full network access to the adversary. We evaluate the feasibility of our attack in a TI CC2538 setup running OpenThread, a certified open-source implementation of the stack.

The full attack does not succeed in our setting. The root cause for this failure is not any particular security feature of the protocol or the implementation, but a side-effect of a feature not related to security. We summarize the problems that we find in the protocol with respect to side-channel analysis, and suggest a range of countermeasures to prevent our attack and the other attack vectors we identified during the vulnerability analysis.

In general, we demonstrate that elaborate security mechanisms of Thread make a side-channel attack not trivial to mount. Similar to a modern software exploit, it requires chaining multiple vulnerabilities. Nevertheless, such attacks are feasible. Being perhaps too expensive for settings like smart homes, they pose a relatively higher threat to the commercial setting. We believe our experience provides a useful lesson to designers of IoT protocols and devices.
ePrint Report MILP-aided Cube-attack-like Cryptanalysis on Keccak Keyed Modes Wenquan Bi, Xiaoyang Dong, Zheng Li, Rui Zong, Xiaoyun Wang
Cube-attack-like cryptanalysis was proposed by Dinur et al. at EUROCRYPT 2015, which recovers the key of Keccak keyed modes in a divide-and-conquer manner. In their attack, one selects cube variables that are not multiplied with each other (denoted as linear-cube) with the method of construction. The chosen cube variables are consecutive bits in one lane and the key bits they multiply with are still too many, which leads to that one can attack less rounds sometimes. In this paper, we introduce a new MILP model to solve the above problem. Using this new MILP tool, we find the optimal linear-cubes for Keccak-MAC and Ketje that multiply with a minimum number of key bits in the first round. For example, when the capacity is 256, we find a new 32-dimension linear-cube for Keccak-MAC that only multiply with 18 key bits instead of Dinur et al.'s 64 bits and the complexity of the 6-round attack is reduced to $2^{42}$ from $2^{66}$. More impressively, using this new tool, we give the very first 7-round key-recovery attack on Keccak-MAC-512. In addition, we get the best attacks on Ketje Major/Minor. For Ketje Major, when nonce is 9 lanes, we could improve the best previous 6-round attack to 7-round. We give the first 7-round attacks on Ketje Minor when the nonce is reduced to 9 lanes. When comparing with Huang et al.'s conditional cube attack, the MILP-aided cube-attack-like cryptanalysis have larger effective range and get the best results on the Keccak keyed variants with relatively smaller degrees of freedom.
ePrint Report Secure Logistic Regression based on Homomorphic Encryption Miran Kim, Yongsoo Song, Shuang Wang, Yuhou Xia, Xiaoqian Jiang
Learning a model without accessing raw data has been an intriguing idea to the security and machine learning researchers for years. In an ideal setting, we want to encrypt sensitive data to store them on a commercial cloud and run certain analysis without ever decrypting the data to preserve the privacy. Homomorphic encryption technique is a promising candidate for secure data outsourcing but it is a very challenging task to support real-world machine learning tasks. Existing frameworks can only handle simpli ed cases with low-degree polynomials such as linear means classi er and linear discriminative analysis.

The goal of this study is to provide a practical support to the mainstream learning models (e.g., logistic regression). We innovated on: (1) a novel homomorphic encryption scheme optimized for real numbers computation, (2) the least squares approximation of the logistic function for accuracy and eciency (i.e., reduce computation cost), and (3) new packing and parallelization techniques. Using real-world datasets, we evaluated the performance of our model and demonstrated its feasibility in speed and memory consumption. For example, it took about 116 minutes to obtain the training model from homomorphically encrypted Edinburgh dataset. In addition, it gives fairly accurate predictions on the testing dataset. We present the rst homomorphically encrypted logistic regression outsourcing model based on the critical observation that the precision loss of classi cation models is suciently small so that the decision plan stays still.
ePrint Report GAZELLE: A Low Latency Framework for Secure Neural Network Inference Chiraag Juvekar, Vinod Vaikuntanathan, Anantha Chandrakasan
The growing popularity of cloud-based machine learning raises a natural question about the privacy guarantees that can be provided in such a setting. Our work tackles this problem in the context where a client wishes to classify private images using a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained by a server. Our goal is to build efficient protocols whereby the client can acquire the classification result without revealing their input to the server, while guaranteeing the privacy of the server's neural network.

To this end, we design Gazelle, a scalable and low-latency system for secure neural network inference, using an intricate combination of homomorphic encryption and traditional two-party computation techniques (such as garbled circuits). Gazelle makes three contributions. First, we design the Gazelle homomorphic encryption library which provides fast algorithms for basic homomorphic operations such as SIMD (single instruction multiple data) addition, SIMD multiplication and ciphertext permutation. Second, we implement the Gazelle homomorphic linear algebra kernels which map neural network layers to optimized homomorphic matrix-vector multiplication and convolution routines. Third, we design optimized encryption switching protocols which seamlessly convert between homomorphic and garbled circuit encodings to enable implementation of complete neural network inference.

We evaluate our protocols on benchmark neural networks trained on the MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets and show that Gazelle outperforms the best existing systems such as MiniONN (ACM CCS 2017) by 20x and Chameleon (Crypto Eprint 2017/1164) by 30x in online runtime. Similarly when compared with fully homomorphic approaches like CryptoNets (ICML 2016) we demonstrate *three orders of magnitude* faster online run-time.
ePrint Report Template-based Fault Injection Analysis of Block Ciphers Ashrujit Ghoshal, Sikhar Patranabis, Debdeep Mukhopadhyay
We present the first template-based fault injection analysis of FPGA-based block cipher implementations. While template attacks have been a popular form of side-channel analysis in the cryptographic literature, the use of templates in the context of fault attacks has not yet been explored to the best of our knowledge. Our approach involves two phases. The first phase is a profiling phase where we build templates of the fault behavior of a cryptographic device for different secret key segments under different fault injection intensities. This is followed by a matching phase where we match the observed fault behavior of an identical but black-box device with the pre-built templates to retrieve the secret key. We present a generic treatment of our template-based fault attack approach for SPN block ciphers, and illustrate the same with case studies on a Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGA-based implementation of AES-128.
ePrint Report Exploiting Ineffective Fault Inductions on Symmetric Cryptography Christoph Dobraunig, Maria Eichlseder, Thomas Korak, Stefan Mangard, Florian Mendel, Robert Primas
Since the seminal work of Boneh et al., the threat of fault attacks has been widely known and new techniques for fault attacks and countermeasures have been studied extensively. The vast majority of the literature on fault attacks focuses on the ability of fault attacks to change an intermediate value to a faulty one, such as differential fault analysis (DFA), collision fault analysis, statistical fault attack (SFA), fault sensitivity analysis, or differential fault intensity analysis. The other aspect of faults---that faults can be induced and do not change a value---has been far less researched. In case of symmetric ciphers, this area is covered by ineffective fault attacks (IFA). However, IFA relies on the ability of an attacker to induce reproducible deterministic faults like stuck-at faults for a smaller intermediate structure (e.g., one bit or byte), which is often considered to be impracticable.

As a consequence, most countermeasures against fault attacks focus on the ability of faults to change intermediate values and usually try to detect such a change (detection-based), or to destroy the exploitable information if a fault happens (infective countermeasures). Such countermeasures implicitly assume that the release of ``fault-free'' ciphertexts in the presence of a fault-inducing attacker does not reveal any exploitable information. In this work, we challenge this assumption and show attacks that exploit the fact that intermediate values leading to such ``fault-free'' ciphertexts show a non-uniform distribution, while they should be uniformly distributed. The presented attacks are entirely practical and are demonstrated to work for software implementations of AES and for a hardware co-processor. These practical attacks rely on faults induced by means of clock glitches and hence, are achieved using only low-cost equipment. We target two countermeasures as example, simple time redundancy with comparison and an infective countermeasure presented at CHES 2014. However, our attacks can be applied to a wider range of countermeasures and are not restricted to these two countermeasures.
We give a framework for trapdoor-permutation-based sequential aggregate signatures (SAS) that unifies and simplifies prior work and leads to new results. The framework is based on ideal ciphers over large domains, which have recently been shown to be realizable in the random oracle model. The basic idea is to replace the random oracle in the full-domain-hash signature scheme with an ideal cipher. Each signer in sequence applies the ideal cipher, keyed by the message, to the output of the previous signer, and then inverts the trapdoor permutation on the result. We obtain different variants of the scheme by varying additional keying material in the ideal cipher and making different assumptions on the trapdoor permutation. In particular, we obtain the first scheme with lazy verification and signature size independent of the number of signers that does not rely on bilinear pairings. Since existing proofs that ideal ciphers over large domains can be realized in the random oracle model are lossy, our schemes do not currently permit practical instantiation parameters at a reasonable security level, and thus we view our contribution as mainly conceptual. However, we are optimistic tighter proofs will be found, at least in our specific application.
ePrint Report Reusing Nonces in Schnorr Signatures Marc Beunardeau, Aisling Connolly, Houda Ferradi, Rémi Géraud, David Naccache, Damien Vergnaud
The provably secure Schnorr signature scheme is popular and efficient. However, each signature requires a fresh modular exponentiation, which is typically a costly operation. As the increased uptake in connected devices revives the interest in resource-constrained signature algorithms, we introduce a variant of Schnorr signatures that mutualises exponentiation efforts.

Combined with precomputation techniques (which would not yield as interesting results for the original Schnorr algorithm), we can amortise the cost of exponentiation over several signatures: these signatures share the same nonce. Sharing a nonce is a deadly blow to Schnorr signatures, but is not a security concern for our variant.

Our Scheme is provably secure, asymptotically-faster than Schnorr when combined with efficient precomputation techniques, and experimentally $2$ to $6$ times faster than Schnorr for the same number of signatures when using 1\,MB of static storage.
ePrint Report Simple Schnorr Multi-Signatures with Applications to Bitcoin Gregory Maxwell, Andrew Poelstra, Yannick Seurin, Pieter Wuille
We describe a new Schnorr-based multi-signature scheme (i.e., a protocol which allows a group of signers to produce a short, joint signature on a common message), provably secure in the plain public-key model (meaning that signers are only required to have a public key, but do not have to prove knowledge of the private key corresponding to their public key to some certification authority or to other signers before engaging the protocol), which improves over the state-of-art scheme of Bellare and Neven (ACM-CCS 2006) and its variants by Bagherzandi et al. (ACM-CCS 2008) and Ma et al. (Des. Codes Cryptogr., 2010) in two respects: (i) it is simple and efficient, having only two rounds of communication instead of three for the Bellare-Neven scheme and the same key and signature size as standard Schnorr signatures; (ii) it allows key aggregation, which informally means that the joint signature can be verified exactly as a standard Schnorr signature with respect to a single ``aggregated'' public key which can be computed from the individual public keys of the signers. This comes at the cost of a stronger security assumption, namely the hardness of the One-More Discrete Logarithm problem, rather than the standard Discrete Logarithm problem, and a looser security reduction due to a double invocation of the Forking Lemma. As an application, we explain how our new multi-signature scheme could improve both performance and user privacy in Bitcoin.
Bootstrapping is a crucial operation in Gentry's breakthrough work on fully homomorphic encryption (FHE), where a homomorphic encryption scheme evaluates its own decryption algorithm. There has been a couple of implementations of bootstrapping, among which HElib arguably marks the state-of-the-art in terms of throughput, ciphertext/message size ratio and support for large plaintext moduli.

In this work, we apply a family of "lowest digit removal" polynomials to improve homomorphic digit extraction algorithm which is crucial part in bootstrapping for both FV and BGV schemes. If the secret key has 1-norm $h=l_1(s)$ and the plaintext modulus is $t = p^r$, we achieved bootstrapping depth $\log h + \log( \log_p(ht))$ in FV scheme. In case of the BGV scheme, we bring down the depth from $\log h + 2 \log t$ to $\log h + \log t$.

We implemented bootstrapping for FV in the SEAL library. Besides the regular mode, we introduce another "slim mode'", which restrict the plaintexts to batched vectors in $\mathbb{Z}_{p^r}$. The slim mode has similar throughput as the regular mode, while each individual run is much faster and uses much smaller memory. For example, bootstrapping takes $6.75$ seconds for 7 bit plaintext space with 64 slots and $1381$ seconds for $GF(257^{128})$ plaintext space with 128 slots. We also implemented our improved digit extraction procedure for the BGV scheme in HElib.
ePrint Report Tweaking Generic OTR to Avoid Forgery Attacks Hassan Qahur Al Mahri, Leonie Simpson, Harry Bartlett, Ed Dawson, Kenneth Koon-Ho Wong
This paper considers the security of the Offset Two-Round (OTR) authenticated encryption mode \cite{cryptoeprint:2013:628} with respect to forgery attacks. The current version of OTR gives a security proof for specific choices of the block size $(n)$ and the primitive polynomial used to construct the finite field $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$. Although the OTR construction is generic, the security proof is not. For every choice of finite field the distinctness of masking coefficients must be verified to ensure security. In this paper, we show that some primitive polynomials result in collisions among the masking coefficients used in the current instantiation, from which forgeries can be constructed. We propose a new way to instantiate OTR so that the masking coefficients are distinct in every finite field $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$, thus generalising OTR without reducing the security of OTR.
The existing multi-prover interactive proof framework suffers from incompleteness in terms of soundness and zero-knowledge that is not completely addressed in the literature. The problem is that the existing definitions of what is local, entangled and no-signalling are not rich enough to capture the full generality of multi-prover interaction. In general, existing proofs do not take into account possible changes in locality either during a protocol's execution or when protocols are composed together. This is especially problematic for zero-knowledge, as composing commitments is the only known way of achieving zero-knowledge outside of some NP-intermediate languages. In this work, we introduce the locality hierarchy for multiparty (multi-round) interaction, and for the first time a complete definition of multi-round multiparty no-signalling distributions and strategies. Within this framework, we define the locality of a protocol which involves the provers, verifiers, simulators and distinguishers. We show that an existing protocol for NEXP (Babai et al., Computational Complexity, Dec 92) and a zero-knowledge variant we introduce are sound in a local sense, but are zero-knowledge in a sense that is even stronger than usually understood. All prior claims of zero-knowledge proofs in the multi-prover model were actually incorrect. Finally, we present similar constructions for entangled and no-signalling prover sets for NEXP and EXP based on (Ito et al., FOCS'12) and (Kalai et al., STOC'14) using new multi-prover commitment schemes.
ePrint Report Systematization Of A 256-Bit Lightweight Block Cipher Marvin Sukanya Saha, Krishnendu Rarhi, Abhishek Bhattacharya
In a world heavily loaded by information, there is a great need for keeping specifi c information secure from adversaries. The rapid growth in the research fi eld of lightweight cryptography can be seen from the list of the number of lightweight stream as well as block ciphers that has been proposed in the recent years. This paper focuses only on the subject of lightweight block ciphers. In this paper, we have proposed a new 256 bit lightweight block cipher named as Marvin, that belongs to the family of Extended LS designs.
ePrint Report The Viability of Post-quantum X.509 Certificates Panos Kampanakis, Peter Panburana, Ellie Daw, Daniel Van Geest
If quantum computers were built, they would pose concerns for public key cryptography as we know it. Among other cryptographic techniques, they would jeopardize the use of PKI X.509 certificates (RSA, ECDSA) used today for authentication. To overcome the concern, new quantum secure signature schemes have been proposed in the literature. Most of these schemes have significantly larger public key and signature sizes than the ones used today. Even though post-quantum signatures could work well for some usecases like software signing, there are concerns about the effect their size would have on technologies using X.509 certificates. In this work, we investigate the viability of post-quantum signatures in X.509 certificates and protocols that use them (e.g. TLS, IKEv2). We prove that, in spite of common concerns, they would work in today's protocols and could be a viable solution to the emergence of quantum computing. We quantify the overhead they introduce in protocol connection establishment and show that even though it is significant, it is not detrimental.
We proposed a zero-contention in cache lines a cache policy between REE and TEE to prevent from TruSpy attacks in a kernel memory of an embedded system. We suggested that delay time of data path of REE is equal or similar to that of data path of TEE to prevent timing side-channel attacks.
16 January 2018
Event date: 27 August to 30 August 2018
Submission deadline: 1 April 2018
Notification: 27 May 2018
Event date: 27 August to 30 August 2018
Submission deadline: 16 March 2018
Notification: 30 May 2018
This paper presents two non-generic and practically efficient private key multi-input functional encryption (MIFE) schemes for the multi-input version of the inner product functionality that are the first to achieve simultaneous message and function privacy, namely, the full-hiding security for a non-trivial multi-input functionality under well-studied cryptographic assumptions. Our MIFE schemes are built in bilinear groups of prime order, and their security is based on the standard $k$-Linear ($k$-LIN) assumption (along with the existence of semantically secure symmetric key encryption and pseudorandom functions). Our constructions support polynomial number of encryption slots (inputs) without incurring any super-polynomial loss in the security reduction. While the number of encryption slots in our first scheme is apriori bounded, our second scheme can withstand an arbitrary number of encryption slots. Prior to our work, there was no known MIFE scheme for a non-trivial functionality, even without function privacy, that can support an unbounded number of encryption slots without relying on any heavy-duty building block or little-understood cryptographic assumption.

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