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2013-10-24
18:17 [Pub][ePrint] Fully Bideniable Public-Key Encryption, by Marcel Sebek

  Bideniable encryption allows both sender and receiver in a public-key setting to simultaneously claim that a different message of their choice was transmitted, and support this claim by a good-looking encryption and key-generation randomness, respectively. A weaker version with two variants of algorithms is called flexible or multi-distributional deniability, a stronger one-algorithm version is called full deniability. Bendlin et al. (ASIACRYPT 2011) showed that certain kinds of fully-deniable schemes are constructible using corresponding flexible schemes. In this paper, we show that their construction in the bideniable case has a flaw, and we provide a fixed scheme. Our construction relies on a deterministic subset matching algorithm that assigns to each nonempty subset of a finite set its proper subset reduced by exactly one element. Although this algorithm is crucial in our construction, it may also be of independent interest.



18:17 [Pub][ePrint] Solving shortest and closest vector problems: The decomposition approach, by Anja Becker, Nicolas Gama and Antoine Joux

  In this paper, we present a heuristic algorithm for solving exact, as

well as approximate, SVP and CVP for lattices. This algorithm is based

on a new approach which is very different from and complementary to the

sieving technique. This new approach frees us from the kissing number bound and allows us to solve SVP and CVP in lattices of dimension $n$ in time $2^{0.377n}$ using memory $2^{0.292n}$. The key idea is to no longer work with a single lattice but to move the problems around in a tower of related lattices. We initiate the algorithm by sampling very short vectors in a dense overlattice of the original lattice that admits a quasi-orthonormal basis and hence an efficient enumeration of vectors of bounded norm. Taking sums of vectors in the sample, we construct short vectors in the next lattice of our tower. Repeating this, we climb all the way to the top of the tower and finally obtain solution vector(s) in the initial lattice as a sum of vectors of the overlattice just below it. The complexity analysis relies on the Gaussian heuristic. This heuristic is backed by experiments in low and high dimensions that closely reflect these estimates when solving hard lattice problems in the average case.



18:17 [Pub][ePrint] New abstractions in applied pi-calculus and automated verification of protected executions, by Shiwei Xu and Sergiu Bursuc and Julian P. Murphy

  Protocols for the protected execution of programs, like those based on a hardware root of trust, will become of fundamental importance for computer security. In parallel to such protocols, there is therefore a need to develop models and tools that allow formal specification and automated verification of the desired security properties. Still, current protocols lack realistic models and automated proofs of security. This is due to several challenges that we address in this paper.

We consider the classical setting of applied pi-calculus and ProVerif, that we enrich with several generic models that allow verification of protocols designed for a given computing platform. Our contributions include models for specifying platform states and for dynamically loading and executing protected programs. We also propose a new method to make ProVerif terminate on a challenging search space - the one obtained by allowing an unbounded number of extensions and resets for the platform configuration registers of the TPM.

We illustrate our methods with the case study of a protocol for a dynamic root of trust (based on a TPM), which includes dynamic loading, measurement and protected execution of programs. We prove automatically with ProVerif that code integrity and secrecy of sealed data hold for the considered protocol.



18:17 [Pub][ePrint] How to Compress (Reusable) Garbled Circuits, by Craig Gentry and Sergey Gorbunov and Shai Halevi and Vinod Vaikuntanathan and Dhinakaran Vinayagamurthy

  A fundamental question about (reusable) circuit garbling schemes is: how small can the garbled circuit be? Our main result is a reusable garbling scheme which produces garbled circuits that are the same size as the original circuit plus an additive poly(secp) bits, where secp is the security parameter. Save the additive poly(secp) factor, this is the best one could hope for. In contrast, all previous constructions of even single-use garbled circuits incurred a multiplicative poly(secp) blowup.

Our techniques result in constructions of attribute-based and (single key secure) functional encryption schemes where the secret key of a circuit C consists of C itself, plus poly(secp) additional bits. All of these constructions are based on the subexponential hardness of the learning with errors problem.

We also study the dual question of how short the garbled inputs can be, relative to the original input. We demonstrate a (different) reusable circuit garbling scheme, based on multilinear maps, where the size of the garbled input is the same as that of the original input, plus a poly(secp) factor. This improves on the result of Applebaum, Ishai, Kushilevitz and Waters (CRYPTO 2013)

who showed such a result for single-use garbling. Similar to the above, this also results in attribute-based and (single key secure) functional encryption schemes where the size of the ciphertext encrypting an input x is the same as that of x, plus poly(secp) additional bits.



18:17 [Pub][ePrint] Unbalancing Pairing-Based Key Exchange Protocols, by Michael Scott

  In many pairing-based protocols more than one party is involved, and some or all of them may be required to calculate pairings.

Commonly it is the pairing calculation itself which takes most time.

However some parties may be better equipped than others in terms of computational power. By exploiting the bilinearity

property there are established ways to off-load the pairing calculation to an untrusted third party. Here we observe

that this third party may in fact be one of the other participants in the protocol. In this way a protocol may be ``unbalanced\'\'

by shifting the computational load from one participant to another, which may be an advantage in some circumstances.

In this paper we focus on some simple key exchange protocols.

Surprisingly we find that unbalancing a key exchange protocol can endow it with the property of full forward secrecy, even if it did not originally possess it.

Finally we show that a new condition on the choice of pairing-friendly curve can help to minimize the overall computation.



18:17 [Pub][ePrint] Differing-Inputs Obfuscation and Applications, by Prabhanjan Ananth and Dan Boneh and Sanjam Garg and Amit Sahai and Mark Zhandry

  In this paper we study of the notion of differing-input obfuscation, introduced by Barak et al. (CRYPTO 2001, JACM 2012). For any two circuit C0 and C1, differing-input obfuscator diO guarantees that non-existence of a adversary that can find an input on which C0 and C1 differ implies that diO(C0) and diO(C1) are computationally indistinguishable. We show many applications of this notion:

- We define the notion of differing-input obfuscator for Turing machines and give a construction for the same (without converting it to a circuit) with input-specific running times. More specifically, for each input our obfuscated Turning machine takes times proportional to the running time of the Turing machine on that specific input rather than the machines worst-cast running time.

- We give a functional encryption scheme that is fully-secure even when the adversary can obtain an unbounded number of secret keys. Furthermore our scheme allows for secret-keys to be associated with Turing machines and thereby achieves input-specific running times and can be equipped with delegation properties. We stress that no previous scheme in the literature had any of these properties.

- We construct the first broadcast encryption system where the ciphertext and secret-key size is constant (i.e. independent of the number of users), and the public key is logarithmic in the number of users. It is the first such scheme where all three parameters are this short. Both our constructions make inherent use of the power provided by differing-input obfuscation. It is not currently known how to construct systems with these properties from the weaker notion of indistinguishability obfuscation.



18:17 [Pub][ePrint] Obfuscation ==> (IND-CPA Security =/=> Circular Security), by Antonio Marcedone and Claudio Orlandi

  Circular security is an important notion for public-key encryption schemes and is needed by several cryptographic protocols. In circular security the adversary is given an extra ``hint\'\' consisting of a cycle of encryption of secret keys i.e., (E_{pk_1}(sk_2),..., E_{pk_n}(sk_1)). A natural question is whether every IND-CPA encryption scheme is also circular secure. It is trivial to see that this is not the case when n=1. In 2010 a separation for n=2 was shown by [ABBC10,GH10] under standard assumptions in bilinear groups.

In this paper we finally settle the question showing that for every $n$ there exist an IND-CPA secure scheme which is not n-circular secure. Our result relies on the recent progress in program obfuscation.



12:17 [Pub][ePrint] Bounded Tamper Resilience: How to go beyond the Algebraic Barrier, by Ivan Damgaard and Sebastian Faust and Pratyay Mukherjee and Daniele Venturi

  Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e.g., affine functions or polynomials of bounded degree. In this work, we show that it is possible to go beyond the algebraic barrier and achieve security against arbitrary key relations, by restricting the number of tampering queries the adversary is allowed to ask for. The latter restriction is necessary in case of arbitrary key relations, as otherwise a generic attack of Gennaro et al. (TCC 2004) shows how to recover the key of almost any cryptographic primitive. We describe our contributions in more detail below.

1) We show that standard ID and signature schemes constructed from a large class of $\\Sigma$-protocols (including the Okamoto scheme, for instance) are secure even if the adversary can arbitrarily tamper with the prover\'s state a bounded number of times and obtain some bounded amount of leakage. Interestingly, for the Okamoto scheme we can allow also independent tampering with the public parameters.

2) We show a bounded tamper and leakage resilient CCA secure public key cryptosystem based on the DDH assumption. We first define a weaker CPA-like security notion that we can instantiate based on DDH, and then we give a general compiler that yields CCA-security with tamper and leakage resilience. This requires a public tamper-proof common reference string.

3) Finally, we explain how to boost bounded tampering and leakage resilience (as in 1. and 2. above) to continuous tampering and leakage resilience, in the so-called floppy model where each user has a personal hardware token (containing leak- and tamper-free information) which can be used to refresh the secret key.

We believe that bounded tampering is a meaningful and interesting alternative to avoid known impossibility results and can provide important insights into the security of existing standard cryptographic schemes.



12:17 [Pub][ePrint] Universally composable privacy preserving finite automata execution with low online and offline complexity, by Peeter Laud and Jan Willemson

  In this paper, we propose efficient protocols to obliviously execute non-deterministic and deterministic finite automata (NFA and DFA) in the arithmetic black box (ABB) model. In contrast to previous approaches, our protocols do not use expensive public-key operations, relying instead only on computation with secret-shared values. Additionally, the complexity of our protocols is largely offline. In particular, if the DFA is available during the precomputation phase, then the online complexity of evaluating it on an input string requires a small constant number of operations per character. This makes our protocols highly suitable for certain outsourcing applications.



12:17 [Pub][ePrint] Formal verification of a software countermeasure against instruction skip attacks, by Karine Heydemann and Nicolas Moro and Emmanuelle Encrenaz and Bruno Robisson

  Fault attacks against embedded circuits enabled to define many new attack paths against secure circuits. Every attack path relies on a specific fault model which defines the type of faults that the attacker can perform. On embedded processors, a fault model in which an attacker is able to skip an assembly instruction is practical and has been obtained by using several fault injection means. To handle this issue, some countermeasure schemes which rely on temporal redundancy have been proposed. Nevertheless, double fault injection in a long enough time interval is practical and can bypass those countermeasure schemes. Some fine-grained other countermeasure schemes have been proposed for specific instructions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no approach that enables to secure a generic assembly program in order to make it fault-tolerant to instruction skip attacks has been formally proven yet. In this paper, we provide a fault-tolerant replacement sequence for every instruction of the whole Thumb2 instruction set and provide a formal proof of this fault tolerance. This simple transformation enables to add a reasonably good security level to an embedded program and makes practical fault injection attacks much harder to achieve.



12:17 [Pub][ePrint] A Black-Box Construction of a CCA2 Encryption Scheme from a Plaintext Aware Encryption Scheme, by Dana Dachman-Soled

  We present a construction of a CCA2-secure encryption scheme from a plaintext aware, weakly simulatable public key encryption scheme. The notion of plaintext aware, weakly simulatable public key encryption has been considered previously by Myers, Sergi and shelat (SCN, 2012) and natural encryption schemes such as the Damgard Elgamal Scheme (Damgard, Crypto, 1991) and the Cramer-Shoup Lite Scheme (Cramer and Shoup, SIAM J. Comput., 2003) were shown to satisfy these properties.

Recently, Myers, Sergi and shelat (SCN, 2012) defined an extension of non-malleable CCA1 security, called cNM-CCA1, and showed how to construct a cNM-CCA1-secure encryption scheme from a plaintext aware and weakly simulatable public key encryption scheme. Our work extends and improves on this result by showing that a full CCA2-secure encryption scheme can be constructed from the same assumptions.