International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research

CryptoDB

1LUTSensor: Detecting FPGA Voltage Fluctuations using LookUp Tables

Authors:
Darshana Jayasinghe , School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Brian Udugama , School of Computer Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Sri Parameswaran , School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Download:
DOI: 10.46586/tches.v2024.i1.51-86
URL: https://tches.iacr.org/index.php/TCHES/article/view/11240
Search ePrint
Search Google
Abstract: Remote Power Analysis (RPA) attacks use transient voltage fluctuation side channels detected via delay sensors/ on-chip voltage sensors to reveal secret keys from cryptographic circuits. The state-of-the-art research proposed five on-chip voltage sensors for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). This paper proposes a novel on-chip voltage sensor, 1LUTSensor, which uses FPGA LookUp Table (LUT) structure to deduce voltage fluctuations. 1LUTSensor uses LUT multiplexers to create a run-time adjustable delay line to detect voltage fluctuations and uses dedicated paths which are fabricated signal connections and cannot be changed in the FPGA LUT to form the delay line. 1LUTSensor uses only a single LUT and a single flip-flop for the delay line to sense voltage fluctuations and uses a single tapped delay element for calibration. The output of the 1LUTSensor is a single bit. Compared to the state-of-the-art on-chip sensors, 1LUTSensor proposed in this paper is the smallest and fastest on-chip voltage sensor proposed thus far. 1LUTSensor is at least 3x smaller than the smallest on-chip sensor proposed in the literature. Compared to the state-of-the-art, the proposed 1LUTSensor can be operated at 600MHz. 1LUTSensor is evaluated using RPA attacks, and a complete secret key of an AES circuit can be extracted within 100,000 traces.
BibTeX
@article{tches-2023-33662,
  title={1LUTSensor: Detecting FPGA Voltage Fluctuations using LookUp Tables},
  journal={IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems},
  publisher={Ruhr-Universit├Ąt Bochum},
  volume={024 No. 1},
  pages={51-86},
  url={https://tches.iacr.org/index.php/TCHES/article/view/11240},
  doi={10.46586/tches.v2024.i1.51-86},
  author={Darshana Jayasinghe and Brian Udugama and Sri Parameswaran},
  year=2023
}