International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


On the Multi-User Security of LWE-based NIKE

Roman Langrehr , ETH Zurich
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Presentation: Slides
Conference: TCC 2023
Abstract: Non-interactive key exchange (NIKE) schemes like the Diffie-Hellman key exchange are a widespread building block in several cryptographic protocols. Since the Diffie-Hellman key exchange is not post-quantum secure, it is important to investigate post-quantum alternatives. We analyze the security of the LWE-based NIKE by Ding et al. (ePrint 2012) and Peikert (PQCrypt 2014) in a multi-user setting where the same public key is used to generate shared keys with multiple other users. The Diffie-Hellman key exchange achieves this security notion. The mentioned LWE-based NIKE scheme comes with an inherent correctness error (Guo et al., PKC 2020) and this has significant implications for the multi-user security, necessitating a closer examination. Single-user security generically implies multi-user security when all users generate their keys honestly for NIKE schemes with negligible correctness error. However, the LWE-based NIKE requires a super-polynomial modulus to achieve a negligible correctness error, which makes the scheme less efficient. We show that - generically, single-user security does not imply multi-user security when the correctness error is non-negligible, but despite this - the LWE-based NIKE with polynomial modulus is multi-user secure for honest users when the number of users is fixed in advance. This result leverages the leakage-resilience properties of LWE. We then turn to a stronger model of multi-user security that allows adversarially generated public keys. For this model, we consider a variant of the LWE-based NIKE where each public key is equipped with a NIZKPoK of the secret key. Adding NIZKPoKs is a standard technique for this stronger model and Hesse et al. (Crypto 2018) showed that this is sufficient to achieve security in the stronger multi-user security model for perfectly correct NIKEs (which the LWE-based NIKE is not). We show that - for certain parameters that include all parameters with polynomial modulus, the LWE-based NIKE can be efficiently attacked with adversarially generated public keys, despite the use NIZKPoKs, but - for suitable parameters (that require a super-polynomial modulus), this security notion is achieved by the LWE-based NIKE with NIZKPoKs. This stronger security notion has been achieved for the LWE-based NIKE previously only in the QROM, while all our results are in the standard model.
  title={On the Multi-User Security of LWE-based NIKE},
  author={Roman Langrehr},