International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Post-Quantum Security of Key Encapsulation Mechanism against CCA Attacks with a Single Decapsulation Query

Haodong Jiang , HKLNCT
Zhenfeng Zhang , ISCAS
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Presentation: Slides
Conference: ASIACRYPT 2023
Abstract: Recently, in post-quantum cryptography migration, it has been shown that an IND-1-CCA-secure key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) is required for replacing an ephemeral Diffie-Hellman (DH) in widely-used protocols, e.g., TLS, Signal, and Noise. IND-1-CCA security is a notion similar to the traditional IND-CCA security except that the adversary is restricted to one single decapsulation query. At EUROCRYPT 2022, based on CPA-secure public-key encryption (PKE), Huguenin-Dumittan and Vaudenay presented two IND-1-CCA KEM constructions called $T_{CH}$ and $T_H$, which are much more efficient than the widely-used IND-CCA-secure Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) KEMs. The security of $T_{CH}$ was proved in both random oracle model (ROM) and quantum random oracle model (QROM). However, the QROM proof of $T_{CH}$ relies on an additional ciphertext expansion. %requires that the ciphertext size of the resulting KEM is twice as large as the one of the underlying PKE. While, the security of $T_H$ was only proved in the ROM, and the QROM proof is left open. In this paper, we prove the security of $T_H$ and $T_{RH}$ (an implicit variant of $T_H$) in both ROM and QROM with much tighter reductions than Huguenin-Dumittan and Vaudenay's work. In particular, our QROM proof will not lead to ciphertext expansion. Moreover, for $T_{RH}$, $T_H$ and $T_{CH}$, we also show that a $O(1/q)$ ($O(1/q^2)$, resp.) reduction loss is unavoidable in the ROM (QROM, resp.), and thus claim that our ROM proof is optimal in tightness. Finally, we make a comprehensive comparison among the relative strengths of IND-1-CCA and IND-CCA in the ROM and QROM.
  title={Post-Quantum Security of Key Encapsulation Mechanism against CCA Attacks with a Single Decapsulation Query},
  author={Haodong Jiang and Zhi Ma and Zhenfeng Zhang},