International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Accumulators in (and Beyond) Generic Groups: Non-Trivial Batch Verification Requires Interaction

Gili Schul-Ganz
Gil Segev
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Abstract: We prove a tight lower bound on the number of group operations required for batch verification by any generic-group accumulator that stores a less-than-trivial amount of information. Specifically, we show that $\Omega(t \cdot (\lambda / \log \lambda))$ group operations are required for the batch verification of any subset of $t \geq 1$ elements, where $\lambda \in \mathbb{N}$ is the security parameter, thus ruling out non-trivial batch verification in the standard non-interactive manner. Our lower bound applies already to the most basic form of accumulators (i.e., static accumulators that support membership proofs), and holds both for known-order (and even multilinear) groups and for unknown-order groups, where it matches the asymptotic performance of the known bilinear and RSA accumulators, respectively. In addition, it complements the techniques underlying the generic-group accumulators of Boneh, B{\"{u}}nz and Fisch (CRYPTO '19) and Thakur (ePrint '19) by justifying their application of the Fiat-Shamir heuristic for transforming their interactive batch-verification protocols into non-interactive procedures. Moreover, motivated by a fundamental challenge introduced by Aggarwal and Maurer (EUROCRYPT '09), we propose an extension of the generic-group model that enables us to capture a bounded amount of arbitrary non-generic information (e.g., least-significant bits or Jacobi symbols that are hard to compute generically but are easy to compute non-generically). We prove our lower bound within this extended model, which may be of independent interest for strengthening the implications of impossibility results in idealized models.
Video from TCC 2020
  title={Accumulators in (and Beyond) Generic Groups: Non-Trivial Batch Verification Requires Interaction},
  booktitle={Theory of Cryptography},
  author={Gili Schul-Ganz and Gil Segev},