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Paper: From FE Combiners to Secure MPC and Back

Authors:
Prabhanjan Ananth
Saikrishna Badrinarayanan
Aayush Jain
Nathan Manohar
Amit Sahai
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DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-36030-6_9
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Abstract: Cryptographic combiners allow one to combine many candidates for a cryptographic primitive, possibly based on different computational assumptions, into another candidate with the guarantee that the resulting candidate is secure as long as at least one of the original candidates is secure. While the original motivation of cryptographic combiners was to reduce trust on existing candidates, in this work, we study a rather surprising implication of combiners to constructing secure multiparty computation protocols. Specifically, we initiate the study of functional encryption combiners and show its connection to secure multiparty computation.Functional encryption (FE) has incredible applications towards computing on encrypted data. However, constructing the most general form of this primitive has remained elusive. Although some candidate constructions exist, they rely on nonstandard assumptions, and thus, their security has been questioned. An FE combiner attempts to make use of these candidates while minimizing the trust placed on any individual FE candidate. Informally, an FE combiner takes in a set of FE candidates and outputs a secure FE scheme if at least one of the candidates is secure.Another fundamental area in cryptography is secure multi-party computation (MPC), which has been extensively studied for several decades. In this work, we initiate a formal study of the relationship between functional encryption (FE) combiners and secure multi-party computation (MPC). In particular, we show implications in both directions between these primitives. As a consequence of these implications, we obtain the following main results. A two-round semi-honest MPC protocol in the plain model secure against up to $$n-1$$ corruptions with communication complexity proportional only to the depth of the circuit being computed assuming learning with errors (LWE). Prior two round protocols based on standard assumptions that achieved this communication complexity required trust assumptions, namely, a common reference string.A functional encryption combiner based on pseudorandom generators (PRGs) in $$\mathsf {NC}^1$$. This is a weak assumption as such PRGs are implied by many concrete intractability problems commonly used in cryptography, such as ones related to factoring, discrete logarithm, and lattice problems [11]. Previous constructions of FE combiners, implicit in [7], were known only from LWE. Using this result, we build a universal construction of functional encryption: an explicit construction of functional encryption based only on the assumptions that functional encryption exists and PRGs in $$\mathsf {NC}^1$$.
BibTeX
@article{tcc-2019-29973,
  title={From FE Combiners to Secure MPC and Back},
  booktitle={Theory of Cryptography},
  series={Lecture Notes in Computer Science},
  publisher={Springer},
  volume={11891},
  pages={199-228},
  doi={10.1007/978-3-030-36030-6_9},
  author={Prabhanjan Ananth and Saikrishna Badrinarayanan and Aayush Jain and Nathan Manohar and Amit Sahai},
  year=2019
}