International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Multi-theorem Preprocessing NIZKs from Lattices

Sam Kim
David J. Wu
DOI: 10.1007/s00145-019-09324-0
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Abstract: Non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proofs are fundamental to modern cryptography. Numerous NIZK constructions are known in both the random oracle and the common reference string (CRS) models. In the CRS model, there exist constructions from several classes of cryptographic assumptions such as trapdoor permutations, pairings, and indistinguishability obfuscation. However, at the time of the initial publication of this work, we did not have constructions of NIZKs from standard lattice assumptions. In this work, we take an initial step toward constructing multi-theorem NIZKs for general $$\mathsf {NP}$$NP languages from standard lattice assumptions by considering a relaxation to the preprocessing model and a new model we call the designated-prover model. In the preprocessing model, a setup algorithm generates secret proving and verification keys for the prover and the verifier, respectively. In the designated-prover model, the proving key is secret, but the verification key is public. In both settings, the proving key is used to construct proofs and the verification key is used to check proofs. Finally, in the multi-theorem setting, both the proving and verification keys should be reusable for an unbounded number of theorems without compromising soundness or zero-knowledge. Previous constructions of NIZKs in the preprocessing model that rely on weaker assumptions like one-way functions or oblivious transfer are only secure in a single-theorem setting. Thus, constructing multi-theorem NIZKs in these relaxed models does not seem to be inherently easier than constructing them in the CRS model. In this work, we first construct a multi-theorem preprocessing NIZK argument from context-hiding homomorphic signatures. In fact, the construction is a designated-prover NIZK. We also show that using homomorphic commitments, we can get statistically sound proofs in the preprocessing and designated-prover models. Together with lattice-based instantiations of homomorphic signatures and commitments, we obtain the first multi-theorem NIZKs in the preprocessing and designated-prover models from standard lattice assumptions. Finally, we show how to generalize our construction to obtain a universally composable NIZK (UC-NIZK) in the preprocessing model from standard lattice assumptions. Our UC-NIZK relies on a simple preprocessing protocol based on a new primitive we call blind homomorphic signatures.
  title={Multi-theorem Preprocessing NIZKs from Lattices},
  journal={Journal of Cryptology},
  author={Sam Kim and David J. Wu},