International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Paper: Formal Analysis and Systematic Construction of Two-factor Authentication Scheme

Guomin Yang
Duncan S. Wong
Huaxiong Wang
Xiaotie Deng
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Abstract: One of the most commonly used two-factor authentication mechanisms is based on smart card and user's password. Throughout the years, there have been many schemes proposed, but most of them have already been found flawed due to the lack of formal security analysis. On the cryptanalysis of this type of schemes, in this paper, we further review two recently proposed schemes and show that their security claims are invalid. To address the current issue, we propose a new and simplified property set and a formal adversarial model for analyzing the security of this type of schemes. We believe that the property set and the adversarial model themselves are of independent interest. We then propose a new scheme and a generic construction framework. In particular, we show that a secure password based key exchange protocol can be transformed efficiently to a smartcard and password based two-factor authentication scheme provided that there exist pseudorandom functions and collision-resistant hash functions.
  title={Formal Analysis and Systematic Construction of Two-factor Authentication Scheme},
  booktitle={IACR Eprint archive},
  keywords={cryptographic protocols / Authentication, Password, Smart Card, Guessing Attack},
  note={ 13373 received 13 Aug 2006},
  author={Guomin Yang and Duncan S. Wong and Huaxiong Wang and Xiaotie Deng},