International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


David Nowak


A calculus for game-based security proofs
David Nowak Yu Zhang
The game-based approach to security proofs in cryptography is a widely-used methodology for writing proofs rigorously. However a unifying language for writing games is still missing. In this paper we show how CSLR, a probabilistic lambda-calculus with a type system that guarantees that computations are probabilistic polynomial time, can be equipped with a notion of game indistinguishability. This allows us to de ne cryptographic constructions, e ective adversaries, security notions, computational assumptions, game transformations, and game-based security proofs in the uni ed framework provided by CSLR. Our code for cryptographic constructions is close to implementation in the sense that we do not assume primitive uniform distributions but use a realistic algorithm to approximate them. We illustrate our calculus on cryptographic constructions for public-key encryption and pseudorandom bit generation.
A Framework for Game-Based Security Proofs
David Nowak
Information security is nowadays an important issue. Its essential ingredient is cryptography. A common way to present security proofs is to structure them as sequences of games. The main contribution of this paper is a framework which refines this approach. We make explicit important theorems used implicitly by cryptographers but never explicitly stated. Our aim is to have a framework in which proofs are precise enough to be mechanically checked, and readable enough to be humanly checked. We illustrate the use of our framework by proving in a systematic way the so-called semantic security of the encryption scheme ElGamal and its hashed version. All proofs have been mechanically checked in the proof assistant Coq.


Yu Zhang (1)