International Association for Cryptologic Research

Ph.D. Database

The aim of the IACR Ph.D. database is twofold. On the first hand, we want to offer an overview of Ph.D. already completed in the domain of cryptology. Where possible, this should also include a subject classification, an abstract, and access to the full text. On the second hand, it deals with Ph.D. subjects currently under investigation. This way, we provide a timely map of contemporary research in cryptology. All entries or changes need to be approved by an editor. You can contact them via phds (at)


Josh Benaloh (#338)
Name Josh Benaloh
Personal Homepage
Institution Yale University
Topic of his/her doctorate. Verifiable Secret-Ballot Elections
Category cryptographic protocols
Keywords elections, election schemes, voting
Ph.D. Supervisor(s) Michael Fischer
Year of completion 1987

Privacy in secret-ballot elections has traditionally been attained by using a ballot box or voting booth to disassociate voters from ballots. Although such a system might achieve privacy, there is often little confidence in the accuracy of the announced tally. This thesis describes a practical scheme for conducting secret-ballot elections in which the outcome of an election is verifiable by all participants and even by non-participating observers. All communications are public, yet under a suitable number-theoretic assumption, the privacy of votes remains intact.

The tools developed here to conduct such elections have additional independent applications. Cryptographic capsules allow a prover to convince verifiers that either statement A or statement B is true without revealing substantial information as to which. Secret sharing homomorphisms enable computation on shared (secret) data and give a method of distributing shares of a secret such that each shareholder can verify the validity of all shares.

E-Mail Address benaloh (at)
Last Change 2011-04-16 13:10:38
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