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2015-06-09
00:17 [Pub][ePrint] Security of Full-State Keyed and Duplex Sponge: Applications to Authenticated Encryption, by Bart Mennink and Reza Reyhanitabar and Damian Vizár

  We provide a security analysis for full-state keyed Sponge and full-state Duplex constructions. Our results can be used for making a large class of Sponge-based authenticated encryption schemes more efficient by concurrent absorption of associated data and message blocks. In particular, we introduce and analyze a new variant of SpongeWrap with almost free authentication of associated data. The idea of using full-state message absorption for higher efficiency was first made explicit in the Donkey Sponge MAC construction, but without any formal security proof. Recently, Gazi, Pietrzak and Tessaro (CRYPTO 2015) have provided a proof for the fixed-output-length variant of Donkey Sponge. Yasuda and Sasaki (CT-RSA 2015) have considered partially full-state Sponge-based authenticated encryption schemes for efficient incorporation of associated data. In this work, we unify, simplify, and generalize these results about the security and applicability of full-state keyed Sponge and Duplex constructions; in particular, for designing more efficient authenticated encryption schemes. Compared to the proof of Gazi et al., our analysis directly targets the original Donkey Sponge construction as an arbitrary-output-length function. Our treatment is also more general than that of Yasuda and Sasaki, while yielding a more efficient authenticated encryption mode for the case that associated data might be longer than messages.



00:17 [Pub][ePrint] Improved Side-Channel Analysis of Finite-Field Multiplication, by Sonia Belaïd and Jean-Sébastien Coron and Pierre-Alain Fouque and Benoît Gérard and Jean-Gabriel Kammerer and Emmanuel Prouff

  A side-channel analysis of multiplication in GF(2^{128}) has recently been published by Belaïd, Fouque and Gérard at Asiacrypt 2014, with an application to AES-GCM. Using the least significant bit of the Hamming weight of the multiplication result, the authors have shown how to recover the secret multiplier efficiently. However such least significant bit is very sensitive to noise measurement; this implies that without averaging their attack can only work for high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR > 128). In this paper we describe a new side-channel attack against the multiplication in GF(2^{128}) that uses the most significant bits of the Hamming weight. We show that much higher values of noise can be then tolerated. For instance with an SNR equal to 8, the key can be recovered using 2^{20} consumption traces with time and memory complexities respectively equal to 2^{51.68} and 2^{36}. We moreover show that the new method can be extended to attack the fresh re-keying countermeasure proposed by Medwed, Standaert, Großschädl and Regazzoni at Africacrypt 2010.



00:17 [Pub][ePrint] Bloom Filters in Adversarial Environments, by Moni Naor and Eylon Yogev

  Many efficient data structures use randomness, allowing them to improve upon deterministic ones. Usually, their efficiency and/or correctness are analyzed using probabilistic tools under the assumption that the inputs and queries are independent of the internal randomness of the data structure. In this work, we consider data structures in a more robust model, which we call the adversarial model. Roughly speaking, this model allows an adversary to choose inputs and queries adaptively according to previous responses. Specifically, we consider a data structure known as \"Bloom filter\" and prove a tight connection between Bloom filters in this model and cryptography.

A Bloom filter represents a set S of elements approximately, by using fewer bits than a precise representation. The price for succinctness is allowing some errors: for any x in S it should always answer \'Yes\', and for any x not in S it should answer \'Yes\' only with small probability.

In the adversarial model, we consider both efficient adversaries (that run in polynomial time) and computationally unbounded adversaries that are only bounded in the amount of queries they can make. For computationally bounded adversaries, we show that non-trivial (memory-wise) Bloom filters exist if and only if one-way functions exist. For unbounded adversaries we show that there exists a Bloom filter for sets of size n and error eps, that is secure against t queries and uses only O(n*log(1/eps) + t) bits of memory. In comparison, n*log(1/eps) is the best possible under a non-adaptive adversary.



00:17 [Pub][ePrint] Alternative cubics\' rules with an algebraic appeal, by Daniel R. L. Brown

  Two alternating vector operations on a cubic hypersurface are given

simple expressions. Direct use of the first operation\'s expression

seems less efficient than state-of-the-art elliptic curve

cryptography. The second expression seems mainly interesting

towards an elementary exposition about elliptic curve theory.



00:17 [Pub][ePrint] FROPUF: How to Extract More Entropy from Two Ring Oscillators in FPGA-Based PUFs, by Qinglong Zhang and Zongbin Liu and and Cunqing Ma and Changting Li and Jiwu Jing

  Ring oscillator (RO) based physically unclonable function

(PUF) on FPGAs is crucial and popular for its nice properties and easy

implementation. The compensated measurement based on the ratio of

two ring oscillators\' frequencies proves to be particularly effective to extract

entropy of process variations. However from two ring oscillators

only one bit entropy is extracted and RO PUFs will occupy numerous

resource with the size of private information increasing. Motivated by this

inefficient resource usage, we propose an elegant and efficient method to

extract at least 31 bits entropy from two ring oscillators on FPGAs by

utilizing the fine control of programmable delay lines (PDL). We call this

construction Further ROPUF (FROPUF). In this paper, we present in

detail how to take advantage of the underlying random process variation

which derives from the lookup tables (LUT) of two ring oscillators,

and show that the in-depth variation can be extracted by a similar second

order difference calculation. In addition, we reveal the consistency

of the evaluation results from Xilinx FPGAs (e.g. Virtex-5, Virtex-6,

Kintex-7) and those by simulation of FROPUF. The responses of our

new construction have a nominal bit-error-rate (BER) of 1.85% at 27

C

and FROPUF greatly promotes the number of entropy with equivalent

reliability of the general ROPUF.



00:17 [Pub][ePrint] Actively Secure OT Extension with Optimal Overhead, by Marcel Keller and Emmanuela Orsini and Peter Scholl

  We describe an actively secure OT extension protocol in the random oracle model with efficiency very close to the passively secure IKNP protocol of Ishai et al. (Crypto 2003). For computational security parameter $\\kappa$, our protocol requires $\\kappa$ base OTs, and is the first practical, actively secure protocol to match the cost of the passive IKNP extension in this regard. The added communication cost is

only additive in $O(\\kappa)$, independent of the number of OTs being created, while the computation cost is essentially two finite field operations per extended OT. We present implementation results that show our protocol takes no more than 5% more time than the passively secure IKNP extension, in both LAN and WAN environments, and so is essentially optimal with respect to the passive protocol.



00:17 [Pub][ePrint] Secure Computation of MIPS Machine Code, by Xiao Shaun Wang and S. Dov Gordon and Allen McIntosh and Jonathan Katz

  Existing systems for secure computation require programmers to express the program to be securely computed as a circuit, or in some domain-specific language that can be compiled to a form suitable for applying known protocols. We propose a new system that can securely execute native MIPS code with no special annotations. Our system has the advantage of allowing programmers to use a language of their choice to express their programs, together with any off-the-shelf compiler to MIPS; it can be used for secure computation of existing \"legacy\" MIPS code as well.

Our system uses oblivious RAM for fetching instructions and performing load/store operations in memory, and garbled universal circuits for the execution of a MIPS ALU in each instruction step. We also explore various optimizations based on an offline analysis of the MIPS code to be executed, in order to minimize the overhead of executing each instruction while still maintaining security.



00:17 [Pub][ePrint] Message Transmission with Reverse Firewalls---Secure Communication on Corrupted Machines, by Yevgeniy Dodis and Ilya Mironov and Noah Stephens-Davidowitz

  A secure reverse firewall, as recently defined by Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz, is a third party that \"sits between a user and the outside world\" and modifies the user\'s sent and received messages so that even if the user\'s machine has been corrupted, her security is still guaranteed! In other words, reverse firewalls allow us to provide meaningful (and, indeed, very strong) security guarantees against powerful adversaries that may have tampered with the user\'s hardware or software (or adversaries that are aware of bugs in the user\'s protocol implementation). A long list of recent revelations shows that such threats are extremely common in practice, and they present a serious, arguably existential, threat to cryptography. Importantly, reverse firewalls defend against such threats without sharing any secrets with the user, and in general we expect the user to place essentially no trust in the firewall.

While Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz demonstrated that reverse firewalls can be constructed for very strong cryptographic primitives (which are of mostly theoretical interest), we study reverse firewalls for perhaps the most natural cryptographic task: secure message transmission. We find a rich structure of solutions that vary in efficiency, security, and setup assumptions, in close analogy with message transmission in the classical setting. Our strongest and most important result shows a protocol that achieves interactive, concurrent CCA-secure message transmission with a reverse firewall---i.e., CCA-secure message transmission on a possibly compromised machine! Surprisingly, this protocol is quite efficient and simple, requiring only a small constant number of public-key operations. It could easily be used in practice. Behind this result is a technical composition theorem that shows how key agreement with a sufficiently secure reverse firewall can be used to construct a message-transmission protocol with its own secure reverse firewall.



00:17 [Pub][ePrint] ILTRU: An NTRU-Like Public Key Cryptosystem Over Ideal Lattices, by Amir Hassani Karbasi, Reza Ebrahimi Atani

  In this paper we present a new NTRU-Like public key cryptosystem with security provably based on the worst case hardness of the approximate both Shortest Vector Problem (SVP) and Closest Vector Problem (CVP) in some structured lattices, called ideal lattices. We show how to modify the ETRU cryptosystem, an NTRU-Like public key cryptosystem based on the Eisenstein integers where is a primitive cube root of unity, to make it provably secure, under the assumed quantum hardness of standard worst-case lattice problems, restricted to a family of lattices related to some cyclotomic fields. The security then proves for our main system from the already proven hardness of the R-LWE and R-SIS problems.



00:17 [Pub][ePrint] Upending Stock Market Structure Using Secure Multi-Party Computation, by Charanjit S. Jutla

  The stock markets have two primary functions, that of providing liquidity and price discovery. While the market micro-structure was mostly ignored or assumed to function ideally for the purpose of asset pricing, M. O\'Hara (Journal of Finance, 2003) has established that both liquidity and price discovery affect asset pricing, and in particular asset returns. While the cost of liquidity provision is borne by investors, and is clearly detrimental to asset returns, periodic price discovery has both positive and negative consequences for asset pricing. In this work we propose using cryptography, and in particular multi-party secure computation, to setup a novel stock market structure that, to a large extent, removes the negative consequences of liquidity costs and periodic price discovery. Interestingly, the proposed market structure takes us back to the early days of stock markets, i.e. periodic call markets, but with the not so ``trusted\'\' auctioneer replaced by secure distributed computing where no individual party (or small coalition) gets to know the order book.





2015-06-08
12:17 [Pub][ePrint] Problems, solutions and experience of the first international student\'s Olympiad in cryptography, by Sergey Agievich and Anastasiya Gorodilova and Nikolay Kolomeec and Svetla Nikova and Bart Preneel

  A detailed overview of the problems, solutions and experience of the

first international student\'s Olympiad in cryptography,

NSUCRYPTO\'2014, is given. We start with rules of participation and

description of rounds. All 15 problems of the Olympiad and their

solutions are considered in detail. There are discussed solutions of

the mathematical problems related to cipher constructing such as

studying of differential characteristics of S-boxes, S-box masking,

determining of relations between cyclic rotation and additions

modulo $2$ and $2^n$, constructing of special linear subspaces in

$\\mathbb{F}_2^n$; problems about the number of solutions of the

equation $F(x)+F(x+a)=b$ over the finite field $\\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$

and APN functions. Some unsolved problems in symmetric cryptography

are also considered.