International Association for Cryptologic Research

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2015-06-09
00:17 [Pub][ePrint]

Ring oscillator (RO) based physically unclonable function

(PUF) on FPGAs is crucial and popular for its nice properties and easy

implementation. The compensated measurement based on the ratio of

two ring oscillators\' frequencies proves to be particularly effective to extract

entropy of process variations. However from two ring oscillators

only one bit entropy is extracted and RO PUFs will occupy numerous

resource with the size of private information increasing. Motivated by this

inefficient resource usage, we propose an elegant and efficient method to

extract at least 31 bits entropy from two ring oscillators on FPGAs by

utilizing the fine control of programmable delay lines (PDL). We call this

construction Further ROPUF (FROPUF). In this paper, we present in

detail how to take advantage of the underlying random process variation

which derives from the lookup tables (LUT) of two ring oscillators,

and show that the in-depth variation can be extracted by a similar second

order difference calculation. In addition, we reveal the consistency

of the evaluation results from Xilinx FPGAs (e.g. Virtex-5, Virtex-6,

Kintex-7) and those by simulation of FROPUF. The responses of our

new construction have a nominal bit-error-rate (BER) of 1.85% at 27

C

and FROPUF greatly promotes the number of entropy with equivalent

reliability of the general ROPUF.

00:17 [Pub][ePrint]

We describe an actively secure OT extension protocol in the random oracle model with efficiency very close to the passively secure IKNP protocol of Ishai et al. (Crypto 2003). For computational security parameter $\\kappa$, our protocol requires $\\kappa$ base OTs, and is the first practical, actively secure protocol to match the cost of the passive IKNP extension in this regard. The added communication cost is

only additive in $O(\\kappa)$, independent of the number of OTs being created, while the computation cost is essentially two finite field operations per extended OT. We present implementation results that show our protocol takes no more than 5% more time than the passively secure IKNP extension, in both LAN and WAN environments, and so is essentially optimal with respect to the passive protocol.

00:17 [Pub][ePrint]

Existing systems for secure computation require programmers to express the program to be securely computed as a circuit, or in some domain-specific language that can be compiled to a form suitable for applying known protocols. We propose a new system that can securely execute native MIPS code with no special annotations. Our system has the advantage of allowing programmers to use a language of their choice to express their programs, together with any off-the-shelf compiler to MIPS; it can be used for secure computation of existing \"legacy\" MIPS code as well.

Our system uses oblivious RAM for fetching instructions and performing load/store operations in memory, and garbled universal circuits for the execution of a MIPS ALU in each instruction step. We also explore various optimizations based on an offline analysis of the MIPS code to be executed, in order to minimize the overhead of executing each instruction while still maintaining security.

00:17 [Pub][ePrint]

A secure reverse firewall, as recently defined by Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz, is a third party that \"sits between a user and the outside world\" and modifies the user\'s sent and received messages so that even if the user\'s machine has been corrupted, her security is still guaranteed! In other words, reverse firewalls allow us to provide meaningful (and, indeed, very strong) security guarantees against powerful adversaries that may have tampered with the user\'s hardware or software (or adversaries that are aware of bugs in the user\'s protocol implementation). A long list of recent revelations shows that such threats are extremely common in practice, and they present a serious, arguably existential, threat to cryptography. Importantly, reverse firewalls defend against such threats without sharing any secrets with the user, and in general we expect the user to place essentially no trust in the firewall.

While Mironov and Stephens-Davidowitz demonstrated that reverse firewalls can be constructed for very strong cryptographic primitives (which are of mostly theoretical interest), we study reverse firewalls for perhaps the most natural cryptographic task: secure message transmission. We find a rich structure of solutions that vary in efficiency, security, and setup assumptions, in close analogy with message transmission in the classical setting. Our strongest and most important result shows a protocol that achieves interactive, concurrent CCA-secure message transmission with a reverse firewall---i.e., CCA-secure message transmission on a possibly compromised machine! Surprisingly, this protocol is quite efficient and simple, requiring only a small constant number of public-key operations. It could easily be used in practice. Behind this result is a technical composition theorem that shows how key agreement with a sufficiently secure reverse firewall can be used to construct a message-transmission protocol with its own secure reverse firewall.

00:17 [Pub][ePrint]

In this paper we present a new NTRU-Like public key cryptosystem with security provably based on the worst case hardness of the approximate both Shortest Vector Problem (SVP) and Closest Vector Problem (CVP) in some structured lattices, called ideal lattices. We show how to modify the ETRU cryptosystem, an NTRU-Like public key cryptosystem based on the Eisenstein integers where is a primitive cube root of unity, to make it provably secure, under the assumed quantum hardness of standard worst-case lattice problems, restricted to a family of lattices related to some cyclotomic fields. The security then proves for our main system from the already proven hardness of the R-LWE and R-SIS problems.

00:17 [Pub][ePrint]

The stock markets have two primary functions, that of providing liquidity and price discovery. While the market micro-structure was mostly ignored or assumed to function ideally for the purpose of asset pricing, M. O\'Hara (Journal of Finance, 2003) has established that both liquidity and price discovery affect asset pricing, and in particular asset returns. While the cost of liquidity provision is borne by investors, and is clearly detrimental to asset returns, periodic price discovery has both positive and negative consequences for asset pricing. In this work we propose using cryptography, and in particular multi-party secure computation, to setup a novel stock market structure that, to a large extent, removes the negative consequences of liquidity costs and periodic price discovery. Interestingly, the proposed market structure takes us back to the early days of stock markets, i.e. periodic call markets, but with the not so trusted\'\' auctioneer replaced by secure distributed computing where no individual party (or small coalition) gets to know the order book.

2015-06-08
12:17 [Pub][ePrint]

A detailed overview of the problems, solutions and experience of the

first international student\'s Olympiad in cryptography,

description of rounds. All 15 problems of the Olympiad and their

solutions are considered in detail. There are discussed solutions of

the mathematical problems related to cipher constructing such as

studying of differential characteristics of S-boxes, S-box masking,

determining of relations between cyclic rotation and additions

modulo $2$ and $2^n$, constructing of special linear subspaces in

$\\mathbb{F}_2^n$; problems about the number of solutions of the

equation $F(x)+F(x+a)=b$ over the finite field $\\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$

and APN functions. Some unsolved problems in symmetric cryptography

are also considered.

12:17 [Pub][ePrint]

We describe three contributions regarding the Soft Analytical Side-Channel Attacks (SASCA) introduced at Asiacrypt 2014. First, we compare them with Algebraic Side-Channel Attacks (ASCA) in a noise-free simulated setting. We observe that SASCA allow more efficient key recoveries than ASCA, even in this context (favorable to the latter). Second, we describe the first working experiments of SASCA against an actual AES implementation. Doing so, we analyse their profiling requirements, put forward the significant gains they provide over profiled Differential Power Analysis (DPA) in terms of number of traces needed for key recoveries, and discuss the specificities of such concrete attacks compared to simulated ones. Third, we evaluate the distance between SASCA and DPA enhanced with computational power to perform enumeration, and show that the gap between both attacks can be quite reduced in this case. Therefore, our results bring interesting feedback for evaluation laboratories. They suggest that in several relevant scenarios (e.g. attacks exploiting many known plaintexts), taking a small margin over the security level indicated by standard DPA with enumeration should be sufficient to prevent more elaborate attacks such as SASCA. By contrast, SASCA may remain the only option in more extreme scenarios (e.g. attacks with unknown plaintexts/ciphertexts or against leakage-resilient primitives). We conclude by recalling the algorithmic dependency of the latter attacks, and therefore that our conclusions are specific to the AES.

12:17 [Pub][ePrint]

Leakage detection usually refers to the task of identifying data-dependent information in side-channel measurements, independent of whether this information can be exploited. Detecting Points-Of-interest (POIs) in leakage traces is a complementary task that is a necessary first step in most side-channel attacks, where the adversary wants to turn this information into (e.g.) a key recovery. In this paper, we discuss the differences between these tasks, by investigating a popular solution to leakage detection based on a t-test, and an alternative method exploiting Pearson\'s correlation coefficient. We first show that the simpler t-test has better sampling complexity, and that its gain over the correlation-based test can be predicted by looking at the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the leakage partitions used in these tests. This implies that the sampling complexity of both tests relates more to their implicit leakage assumptions than to the actual statistics exploited. We also put forward that this gain comes at the cost of some intuition loss regarding the localization of the exploitable leakage samples in the traces, and their informativeness. Next, and more importantly, we highlight that our reasoning based on the SNR allows defining an improved t-test with significanly faster detection speed (with approximately 5 times less measurements in our experiments), which is therefore highly relevant for evaluation laboratories. We finally conclude that whereas t-tests are the method of choice for leakage detection only, correlation-based tests exploiting larger partitions are preferable for detecting POIs, and confirm the latter intuition by integrating a correlation-based leakage detection test in recent automated tools for the detection of POIs in the leakage measurements of a masked implementation, in a black box manner and without key knowledge.

12:17 [Pub][ePrint]

Side-channel attacks generally rely on the availability of good leakage models to extract sensitive information from cryptographic implementations. The recently introduced leakage certification tests aim to guarantee that this condition is fulfilled based on sound statistical arguments. They are important ingredients in the evaluation of leaking devices since they allow a good separation between engineering challenges (how to produce clean measurements) and cryptographic ones (how to exploit these measurements). In this paper, we propose an alternative leakage certification test that is significantly simpler to implement than the previous proposal from Eurocrypt 2014. This gain admittedly comes at the cost of a couple of heuristic (yet reasonable) assumptions on the leakage distribution. To confirm its relevance, we first show that it allows confirming previous results of leakage certification. We then put forward that it leads to additional and useful intuitions regarding the information losses caused by incorrect assumptions in leakage modeling.

12:17 [Pub][ePrint]

In Wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs), a group of users communicating

on an unreliable wireless channel can use a group secret. For each session, group manager broadcasts a message containing some keying material, from which only the group members authorized in that session can extract the session key. If a member misses a broadcast message for key, it uses self healing to recover missing session key using most recent broadcast message. However, only self healing does not help if node needs to get most recent session key and have missed the corresponding broadcast. Through mutual healing, a node can request recent broadcast information from a neighboring node and then recover the required key using self-healing. In this paper, we propose a bi-linear pairing based self-healing scheme that reduces communication, storage and computation overhead in comparison to existing bi-linear pairing based self-healing schemes. Then, we discuss the mutual healing scheme that provides mutual authentication and key confirmation without disclosing the node locations to the adversary. The analysis with respect to active adversary shows a significant performance improvement for resource constrained sensor nodes along with the security features such as forward and backward secrecy, resilience against node collusion, node revocation and resistance to impersonation.