*12:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Message-Locked Encryption for Lock-Dependent Messages, by MartÃn Abadi and Dan Boneh and Ilya Mironov and Ananth Raghunathan and Gil Segev
Motivated by the problem of avoiding duplication in storage systems, Bellare, Keelveedhi, and Ristenpart have recently put forward the notion of Message-Locked Encryption (MLE) schemes which subsumes convergent encryption and its variants. Such schemes do not rely on permanent secret keys, but rather encrypt messages using keys derived from the messages themselves.We strengthen the notions of security proposed by Bellare et al. by considering plaintext distributions that may depend on the public parameters of the schemes. We refer to such inputs as lock-dependent messages. We construct two schemes that satisfy our new notions of security for message-locked encryption with lock-dependent messages.

Our main construction deviates from the approach of Bellare et al. by avoiding the use of ciphertext components derived deterministically from the messages. We design a fully randomized scheme that supports an equality-testing algorithm defined on the ciphertexts.

Our second construction has a deterministic ciphertext component that enables more efficient equality testing. Security for lock-dependent messages still holds under computational assumptions on the message distributions produced by the attacker.

In both of our schemes the overhead in the length of the ciphertext is only additive and independent of the message length.

*12:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Enhancing Trust in Reconfigurable Based Hardware Systems with Tags and Monitors, by Devu Manikantan Shila and Vivek Venugopalan and Cameron D Patterson
Extensive use of third party IP cores (e.g., HDL, netlist) and open source tools in the FPGA application design and development process in conjunction with the inadequate bitstream protection measures have raised crucial security concerns in the past for reconfigurable hardware systems. Designing high fidelity and secure methodologies for FPGAs are still infancy and in particular, there are almost no concrete methods/techniques that can ensure trust in FPGA applications not entirely designed and/or developed in a trusted environment. This work strongly suggests the need for an anomaly detection capability within the FPGAs that can continuously monitor the behavior of the underlying FPGA IP cores and the communication activities of IP cores with other IP cores or peripherals for any abnormalities. To capture this need, we propose a technique called FIDelity Enhancing Security (FIDES) methodology for FPGAs that uses a combination of access control policies and behavior learning techniques for anomaly detection. FIDES essentially comprises of two components: (i) {\\em Trusted Wrappers}, a layer of monitors with sensing capabilities distributed across the FPGA fabric; these wrappers embed the output of each IP core $i$ with a tag $\\tau_i$ according to the pre-defined security policy $\\Pi$ and also verifies the embeddings of each input to the IP core to detect any violation of policies. The use of tagging and tracking enables us to capture the generalized interactions of each IP core with its environment (e.g., other IP cores, memory, OS or I/O ports). {\\em Trusted Wrappers} also monitors the statistical properties exhibited by each IP core functions on execution such as power consumption, number of clock cycles and timing variations to detect any anomalous operations; (ii) a {\\em Trusted Anchor} that monitors the communication between the IP cores and the peripherals with regard to the centralized security policies $\\Psi$ and the statistical properties produced by the peripherals. We target FIDES architecture on a Xilinx Zynq 7020 device for a red-black system comprising of sensitive and non-sensitive IP cores. Our FIDES implementation leads to only 1-2\\% overhead in terms of the logic resources per wrapper but 4-5X increase in latency (worst case scenario), measured in terms of clock cycles, as compared to the baseline implementation.

*21:17* [Pub][ePrint]
A Note on the Unsoundness of vnTinyRAM\'s SNARK, by Bryan Parno
Gennaro, Gentry, Parno, and Raykova (GGPR) introduced Quadratic Arithmetic Programs (QAPs) as a way of representing arithmetic circuits in a form amendable to highly efficient cryptographic protocols (EUROCRYPT 2013), particularly for verifiable computation and succinct non-interactive arguments. Subsequently, Parno, Gentry, Howell, and Raykova introduced an improved cryptographic protocol (and implementation), which they dubbed Pinocchio (IEEE S&P 2013).Ben-Sasson et al. then introduced a lightly modified version of the Pinocchio protocol and implemented it as part of their libsnark distribution. Later work by the same authors employed this protocol, as did a few works by others. Many of these works cite the version of the paper which was published at USENIX Security. However, the protocol does not appear in that peer-reviewed paper; instead, it appears only in a technical report, where it is justified via a lemma that lacks a proof. Unfortunately, the lemma is incorrect, and the modified protocol is unsound. With probability one, an adversary can submit false statements and proofs that the verifier will accept. We demonstrate this theoretically, as well as with concrete examples in which the protocol\'s implementation in libsnark accepts invalid statements.

Fixing this problem requires different performance tradeoffs, indicating that the performance results reported by papers building on this protocol (USENIX Security 2013, CRYPTO 2014, NDSS 2014, EUROCRYPT 2015, IEEE S&P 2014, IEEE S&P 2015) are, to a greater or lesser extent, inaccurate.

*15:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Cryptanalysis of Round-Reduced LED, by Ivica Nikoli\\\'c and Lei Wang and Shuang Wu
In this paper we present known-plaintext single-key and chosen-key attacks on round-reduced LED-64 and LED-128.We show that with an application of the recently proposed slidex attacks,

one immediately improves the complexity of the previous single-key 4-step attack on LED-128. Further, we explore the possibility of

multicollisions and show single-key attacks on 6 steps of LED-128. A generalization of our multicollision attack

leads to the statement that no 6-round cipher with two subkeys that alternate, or 2-round cipher with

linearly dependent subkeys, is secure in the single-key model. Next, we exploit the possibility of finding pairs of inputs that follow

a certain differential rather than a differential characteristic, and obtain chosen-key differential distinguishers

for 5-step LED-64, as well as 8-step and 9-step LED-128. We provide examples of inputs that follow the 8-step differential,

i.e. we are able to practically confirm our results on 2/3 of the steps of LED-128. We introduce a new type of

chosen-key differential distinguisher, called random-difference distinguisher, and

successfully penetrate 10 of the total 12 steps of LED-128. We show that this type of attack is generic

in the chosen-key model, and can be applied to any 10-round cipher with two alternating subkeys.

*15:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Fast and Tradeoff-Resilient Memory-Hard Functions for Cryptocurrencies and Password Hashing, by Alex Biryukov and Daniel Dinu and Dmitry Khovratovich
Memory-hard functions are becoming an important tool in the design of password hashing schemes, cryptocurrencies, and more generic proof-of-work primitives that are x86-oriented and can not be computed on dedicated hardware more efficiently. We develop a simple and cryptographically secure approach to the design of such functions and show how to exploit the architecture of modern CPUs and memory chips to make faster and more secure schemes compared to existing alternatives such as scrypt. We also propose cryptographic criteria for the components, that prevent cost reductions using time-memory tradeoffs and side-channel leaks. The concrete proof-of-work instantiation, which we call Argon2, can fill GBytes of RAM within a second, is resilient to various tradeoffs, and is suitable for a wide range of applications, which aim to bind a computation to a certain architecture.

Concerning potential DoS attacks, our scheme is lightweight enough to offset the bottleneck from the CPU to the memory bus thus leaving sufficient computing power for other tasks. We also propose parameters for which our scheme is botnet resistant. As an application, we suggest a cryptocurrency design with fast and memory-hard proof-of-work, which allows memoryless verification.

*15:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Conversions among Several Classes of Predicate Encryption and Their Applications, by Shota Yamada and Nuttapong Attrapadung and Goichiro Hanaoka
Predicate encryption is an advanced form of public-key encryption that yield high flexibility in terms of access control. In the literature, many predicate encryption schemes have been proposed such as fuzzy-IBE, KP-ABE, CP-ABE, (doubly) spatial encryption (DSE), and ABE for arithmetic span programs. In this paper, we study relations among them and show that some of them are in fact equivalent by giving conversions among them. More specifically, our main contributions are as follows: - We show that monotonic, small universe KP-ABE (CP-ABE) with bounds on the size of attribute sets and span programs (or linear secret sharing matrix) can be converted into DSE. Furthermore, we show that DSE implies non-monotonic CP-ABE (and KP-ABE) with the same bounds on parameters. This implies that monotonic/non-monotonic KP/CP-ABE (with the bounds) and DSE are all equivalent in the sense that one implies another.

- We also show that if we start from KP-ABE without bounds on the size of span programs (but bounds on the size of attribute sets), we can obtain ABE for arithmetic span programs. The other direction is also shown: ABE for arithmetic span programs can be converted into KP-ABE.These results imply, somewhat surprisingly, KP-ABE without bounds on span program sizes is in fact equivalent to ABE for arithmetic span programs, which was thought to be more expressive or at least incomparable.

By applying these conversions to existing schemes, we obtain many non-trivial consequences. We obtain the first non-monotonic, large universe CP-ABE (that supports span programs) with constant-size ciphertexts, the first ABE for arithmetic span programs with adaptive security, the first ciphertext-policy version of ABE for arithmetic span programs, the first KP-ABE with constant-size private keys, and even more.

We also obtain the first attribute-based signature scheme that supports non-monotone span programs and achieves constant-size signatures via our technique.

*15:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Non-Repudiable Provable Data Possession in Cloud Storage, by Hongyuan Wang and Liehuang Zhu and Yijia Lilong and Chang Xu
Provable data possession (PDP) and Proof of Retrievability (POR) are techniques for a client to verify whether an untrusted server (i.e. the cloud storage provider) possesses the original data entirely, and many PDP and POR schemes have been proposed to resolve above issue so far. But another question comes up: driven by profits, a malicious client may accuse an honest server and deny the correct verification in many circumstances. As far as we know, none of the existing private verification schemes that are not based on a third party has settled this matter.In this paper, we give a method to reform any private verification PDP/POR scheme into a non-repudiable PDP/POR scheme. And then we propose an instantiation, the first Non-repudiable PDP (NRPDP) scheme of private verification, which can provide mutual proof to protect both the client and server. Based on homomorphic verifiable tags and commitment function, our solution allows both the client and the server to prove themselves and verify the other side respectively. To achieve better performance, we improve the NRPDP scheme to obtain an E-NRPDP scheme, which can save the storage cost of the server and reduce the I/O costs to raise efficiency.

We prove the security of NRPDP scheme in the random oracle model, and implement a prototype based on our NRPDP scheme. Then we utilize big data as much as 10G to evaluate the performance in a realistic cloud platform. The experiments show our scheme can be executed efficiently as the original PDP/POR scheme and guarantee non-repudiation efficaciously. Our method is universal and practical, which means that it can be applied in any private PDP/POR schemes to guarantee non-repudiation.

*15:17* [Pub][ePrint]
A New Classification of 4-bit Optimal S-boxes and its Application to PRESENT, RECTANGLE and SPONGENT, by Wentao Zhang and. Zhenzhen Bao and. Vincent Rijmen and. Meicheng Liu
In this paper, we present a new classification of 4-bit optimal S-boxes. All optimal 4-bit S-boxes can be classified into 183 different categories, among which we specify 3 platinum categories. Under the design criteria of the PRESENT (or SPONGENT) S-box, there are 8064 different S-boxes up to adding constants before and after an S-box. The 8064 S-boxes belong to 3 different categories, we show that the S-box should be chosen from one out of the 3 categories or other categories for better resistance against linear cryptanalysis. Furthermore, we study in detail how the S-boxes in the 3 platinumcategories influence the security of PRESENT, RECTANGLE and SPONGENT88 against differential and linear cryptanalysis. Our results show that the S-box selection has a great influence on the security of the schemes. For block ciphers or hash functions with 4-bit S-boxes as confusion layers and bit permutations as diffusion layers, designers can extend the range of S-box selection to the 3 platinum categories and select their S-box very carefully. For PRESENT, RECTANGLE and SPONGENT88 respectively, we get a set of potentially best/better S-box candidates from the 3 platinum categories. These potentially best/better S-boxes can be further investigated to see if they can be used to improve the security-performance tradeoff of the 3 cryptographic algorithms.