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2015-04-23
15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Constant-Round MPC with Fairness and Guarantee of Output Delivery, by S. Dov Gordon and Feng-Hao Liu and Elaine Shi

  We study the round complexity of multiparty computation with fairness

and guaranteed output delivery, assuming existence of an honest majority. We demonstrate a new lower bound and a matching

upper bound. Our lower bound rules out any two-round

fair protocols in the standalone model, even when the parties are given access to a common reference string (CRS). The lower bound follows by a reduction to the impossibility result of virtual black box obfuscation of arbitrary circuits.

Then we demonstrate a three-round protocol with guarantee of output delivery, which in general is harder than achieving fairness (since the latter allows the adversary to force a fair abort). We develop a new construction of a threshold fully homomorphic encryption scheme, with a new property that we call ``flexible\'\' ciphertexts. Roughly, our threshold encryption scheme allows parties to adapt flexible ciphertexts to the public keys of the non-aborting parties, which provides a way of handling aborts without adding any communication.



06:17 [Pub][ePrint] Semantic Security and Indistinguishability in the Quantum World, by Tommaso Gagliardoni and Andreas H\\\"ulsing and Christian Schaffner

  At CRYPTO 2013, Boneh and Zhandry initiated the study of quantum-secure encryption. They proposed first indistinguishability definitions for the quantum world where the actual indistinguishability only holds for classical messages, and they provide arguments why it might be hard to achieve a stronger notion. In this work, we show that stronger notions are achievable, where the indistinguishability holds for quantum superpositions of messages. We investigate exhaustively the possibilities and subtle differences in defining such a quantum indistinguishability notion. We justify our stronger definition by showing their equivalence to novel quantum semantic-security notions that we introduce. Furthermore, we give a generic transformation to turn a big class of encryption schemes into quantum indistinguishable and hence quantum semantically secure ones.



03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Fault Analysis of Kuznyechik, by Riham AlTawy and Onur Duman and Amr M. Youssef

  Kuznyechik is an SPN block cipher that has been chosen recently to be standardized by the Russian federation as a new GOST cipher. In this paper, we present two fault analysis attacks on two different settings of the cipher. The first attack is a differential fault attack which employs the random byte fault model, where the attacker

is assumed to be able to fault a random byte in rounds seven and eight. Using this fault model enables the attacker to recover the master key using an average of four faults. The second attack considers the cipher with a secret sbox. By utilizing an ineffective fault analysis in the byte stuck-at-zero fault model, we present a four stage attack to recover both the master key and the secret sbox parameters. Our second attack is motivated by the fact that, similar to GOST 28147-89, Kuznyechik is expected to include the option of using secret sbox based on the user supplied key to increase its security margin. Both the presented attacks have practical complexities and aim to demonstrate the importance of protecting the hardware and software implementations of the new standard even if its sbox is kept secret.



03:17 [Pub][ePrint] A Hardware-based Countermeasure to Reduce Side-Channel Leakage - Design, Implementation, and Evaluation, by An­dre­as Gor­nik and Amir Mo­ra­di and Jür­gen Oehm and Chris­tof Paar

  Side-channel attacks are one of the major concerns for security-enabled applications as they make use of information leaked by the physical implementation of the underlying cryptographic algorithm. Hence, reducing the side-channel leakage of the circuits realizing the cryptographic primitives is amongst the main goals of circuit designers. In this work we present a novel circuit concept, which decouples the main power supply from an internal power supply that is used to drive a single logic gate. The decoupling is done with the help of buffering capacitances integrated into semiconductor. We also introduce - compared to the previously known schemes - an improved decoupling circuit which reduces the crosstalk from the internal to the external power supply. The result of practical side-channel evaluation on a prototype chip fabricated in a 150nm CMOS technology shows a high potential of our proposed technique to reduce the side-channel leakages.



03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Efficient Searchable Symmetric Encryption for Storing Multiple Source Data on Cloud, by Chang Liu and Liehuang Zhu and Jinjun Chen

  Cloud computing has greatly facilitated large-scale data outsourcing due to its cost efficiency, scalability and many other advantages. Subsequent privacy risks force data owners to encrypt sensitive data, hence making the outsourced data no longer searchable. Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) is an advanced cryptographic primitive addressing the above issue, which maintains efficient keyword search over encrypted data without disclosing much information to the storage provider. Existing SSE schemes implicitly assume that original user data is centralized, so that a searchable index can be built at once. Nevertheless, especially in cloud computing applications, user-side data centralization is not reasonable, e.g. an enterprise distributes its data in several data centers. In this paper, we propose the notion of Multi-Data-Source SSE (MDS-SSE), which allows each data source to build a local index individually and enables the storage provider to merge all local indexes into a global index afterwards. We propose a novel MDS-SSE scheme, in which an adversary only learns the number of data sources, the number of entire data files, the access pattern and the search pattern, but not any other distribution information such as how data files or search results are distributed over data sources. We offer rigorous security proof of our scheme, and report experimental results to demonstrate the efficiency of our scheme.



03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Improving Local Collisions: New Attacks on Reduced SHA-256, by Florian Mendel and Tomislav Nad and Martin Schläffer

  In this paper, we focus on the construction of semi-free-start collisions for SHA-256, and show how to turn them into collisions. We present a collision attack on 28 steps of the hash function with practical complexity. Using a two-block approach we are able to turn a semi-free-start collision into a collision for 31 steps with a complexity of at most $2^{65.5}$. The main improvement of our work is to extend the size of the local collisions used in these attacks. To construct differential characteristics and confirming message pairs for longer local collisions, we had to improve the search strategy of our automated search tool. To test the limits of our techniques we present a semi-free-start collision for 38 steps.



03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Database Outsourcing with Hierarchical Authenticated Data Structures, by Mohammad Etemad and Alptekin Küpçü

  In an outsourced database scheme, the data owner delegates the data management tasks to a remote service provider. At a later time, the remote service is supposed to answer any query on the database. The essential requirements are ensuring the data integrity and authenticity with efficient mechanisms. Current approaches employ authenticated data structures to store security information, generated by the client and used by the server, to compute proofs that show the answers to the queries are authentic. The existing solutions have shortcomings with multi-clause queries and duplicate values in a column.

We propose a hierarchical authenticated data structure for storing security information, which alleviates the mentioned problems. Our solution handles many different types of queries, including multi-clause selection and join queries, in a dynamic database. We provide a unified formal definition of a secure outsourced database scheme, and prove that our proposed scheme is secure according to this definition, which captures previously separate properties such as correctness, completeness, and freshness. The performance evaluation based on our prototype implementation confirms the efficiency of our proposed scheme, showing about 3x to 5x enhancement in proof size and proof generation time in comparison to previous work, and about only 4% communication overhead compared to the actual query result in a real university database.



03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Broadcast from Minicast Secure Against General Adversaries, by Pavel Raykov

  Byzantine broadcast is a distributed primitive that allows a specific party to consistently distribute a message among $n$ parties in the presence of potential misbehavior of up to $t$ of the parties. The celebrated result of \\cite{PSL80} shows that broadcast is achievable from point-to-point channels if and only if $t < n/3$.

The following two generalizations have been proposed to the original broadcast problem. In~\\cite{FM98} the authors considered a \\emph{general adversary} characterized by the sets of parties that can be corrupted. It was shown that broadcast is achievable from point-to-point channels if and only if no three possible corrupted sets can cover the whole party set. In~\\cite{CFFLMM05} the notion of point-to-point channels has been extended to the $b$-minicast channels allowing to locally broadcast among any subset of $b$ parties. It has been shown that broadcast secure against adversaries corrupting up to $t$ parties is achievable from $b$-minicast if and only if $t < \\frac{b-1}{b+1}n$.

In this paper we combine both generalizations by considering the problem of achieving broadcast from $b$-minicast channels secure against general adversaries. Our main result is a condition on the possible corrupted sets such that broadcast is achievable from $b$-minicast if and only if this condition holds.



03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Matrix Computational Assumptions in Multilinear Groups, by Paz Morillo and Carla R\\`afols and Jorge L. Villar

  We put forward a new family of computational assumptions, the Kernel Matrix Diffie-Hellman Assumption. This family abstracts and includes as a special case several assumptions used in the literature under different names. Given some matrix $\\matrA$ sampled from some distribution $\\mathcal{D}_{\\ell,k}$, the kernel assumption says

that it is hard to find ``in the exponent\'\' a nonzero vector in the kernel of $\\mathbf{A}^\\top$. Our assumption is the natural computational analogue of the Matrix Decisional Diffie-Hellman Assumption (MDDH), proposed by Escala \\textit{et al}.

We show that the $\\mathcal{D}_{\\ell,k}$ Kernel DH Assumption is a strictly increasing family of weaker computational assumptions when $k$ grows. This requires ruling out the existence of some black-box reductions between flexible problems (\\textit{i.e.}, computational problems with a non unique solution), which is specially subtle.

As opposed to the decisional MDDH Assumption, our kernel assumption might hold in the recent candidate multilinear groups.

Kernel assumptions have implicitly been used in recent works on QA-NIZK and structure-preserving signatures. We also provide a new construction of commitments to group elements in the multilinear setting, based on any kernel assumption.



03:17 [Pub][ePrint] SEMA and MESD Leakage of TinyECC 2.0 on a LOTUS Sensor Node, by Jacek Samotyja and Kerstin Lemke-Rust and Markus Ullmann

  TinyECC 2.0 is an open source library for Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) in wireless sensor networks. This paper analyzes the side channel susceptibility of TinyECC 2.0 on a LOTUS sensor node platform.

In our work we measured the electromagnetic (EM) emanation during computation of the scalar multiplication using 56 different configurations of TinyECC 2.0. All of them were found to be vulnerable, but to a different degree. The different degrees of leakage include adversary success using (i) Simple EM Analysis (SEMA) with a single measurement, (ii) SEMA using averaging, and (iii) Multiple-Exponent Single-Data (MESD) with a single measurement of the secret scalar. It is extremely critical that in 30 TinyECC 2.0 configurations a single EM measurement of an ECC private key operation is sufficient to simply read out the secret scalar. MESD requires additional adversary capabilities and it affects all TinyECC 2.0 configurations, again with only a single measurement of the ECC private key operation. These findings give evidence that in security applications a configuration of TinyECC 2.0 should be chosen that withstands SEMA with a single measurement and, beyond that, an addition of appropriate randomizing countermeasures is necessary.





2015-04-22
06:17 [Pub][ePrint] Two Round MPC from LWE via Multi-Key FHE, by Pratyay Mukherjee and Daniel Wichs

  We construct a general multiparty computation (MPC) protocol in the common random string (CRS) model with only two rounds of interaction, which is known to be optimal. In the honest-but-curious setting we only rely on the learning with errors (LWE) assumption, and in the fully malicious setting we additionally assume the existence of non-interactive zero knowledge arguments (NIZKs). Previously, Asharov et al. (EUROCRYPT \'12) showed how to achieve three rounds based on LWE and NIZKs, while Garg et al. (TCC \'14) showed how to achieve the optimal two rounds based on indistinguishability obfuscation, but it was unknown if two rounds were possible under simpler assumptions without obfuscation.

Our approach relies on \\emph{multi-key fully homomorphic encryption (MFHE)}, introduced by Lopez-Alt et al. (STOC \'12), which enables homomorphic computation over data encrypted under different keys. We simplify a recent construction of MFHE based on LWE by Clear and McGoldrick (ePrint \'14), and give a stand-alone exposition of that scheme. We then extend this construction to allow for a one-round distributed decryption of a multi-key ciphertext. Our entire MPC protocol consists of the following two rounds:

- Each party individually encrypts its input under its own key and broadcasts the ciphertext. All parties can then homomorphically compute a multi-key encryption of the output.

- Each party broadcasts a partial decryption of the output using its secret key. The partial decryptions can be combined to recover the output in plaintext.