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15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Password Hashing Competition - Survey and Benchmark, by George Hatzivasilis and Ioannis Papaefstathiou and Charalampos Manifavas

  Password hashing is the common approach for maintaining users\' password-related information that is later used for authentication. A hash for each password is calculated and maintained at the service provider end. When a user logins the service, the hash of the given password is computed and contrasted with the stored hash. If the two hashes match, the authentication is successful. However, in many cases the passwords are just hashed by a cryptographic hash function or even stored in clear. These poor password protection practises have lead to efficient attacks that expose the users\' passwords. PBKDF2 is the only standardized construction for password hashing. Other widely used primitives are bcrypt and scrypt. The low variety of methods derive the international cryptographic community to conduct the Password Hashing Competition (PHC). The competition aims to identify new password hashing schemes suitable for widespread adoption. It started in 2013 with 22 active submissions. Nine finalists are announced during 2014. In 2015, a small portfolio of schemes will be proposed. This paper provides the first survey and benchmark analysis of the 22 proposals. All proposals are evaluated on the same platform over a common benchmark suite. We measure the execution time, code size and memory consumption of PBKDF2, bcrypt, scrypt, and the 22 PHC schemes. The first round results are summarized along with a benchmark analysis that is focused on the nine finalists and contributes to the final selection of the winners.

15:17 [Pub][ePrint] GRECS: Graph Encryption for Approximate Shortest Distance Queries, by Xianrui Meng and Seny Kamara and Kobbi Nissim and George Kollios

  We propose graph encryption schemes that efficiently support approximate shortest distance queries on large-scale encrypted graphs. Shortest distance queries are one of the most fundamental graph operations and have a wide range of applications. Using such graph encryption schemes, a client can outsource large-scale privacy-sensitive graphs to an untrusted server without losing the ability to query it. Other applications include encrypted graph databases and controlled disclosure systems. We propose GRECS (stands for GRaph EnCryption for approximate Shortest distance queries) which includes three schemes that are provably secure against any semi-honest server. Our first construction makes use of only symmetric-key operations, resulting in a computationally-efficient construction. Our second scheme, makes use of somewhat-homomorphic encryption and is less computationally-efficient but achieves optimal communication complexity (i.e., uses a minimal amount of bandwidth). Finally, our third scheme is both computationally- efficient and achieves optimal communication complexity at the cost of a small amount of additional leakage. We implemented and evaluated the efficiency of our constructions experimentally. The experiments demonstrate that our schemes are efficient and can be applied to graphs that scale up to 1.6 million nodes and 11 million edges.

15:17 [Pub][ePrint] The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer, by Tung Chou and Claudio Orlandi

  Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for $1$-out-of-$2$ OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against active corruptions in the random oracle model.

Due to its simplicity, the protocol is extremely efficient and it allows to perform $n$ OTs using only:


\\item \\textbf{Computation:} $3n+2$ exponentiations ($2n$ for the receiver, $n+2$ for the sender) and

\\item \\textbf{Communication:} $32(n+1)$ bytes (for the group elements), and $2n$ ciphertexts.


We also report on an implementation of the protocol using elliptic curves (Curve25519), and on a number of mechanisms we employ to ensure that our software is secure against active attacks too.

Experimental results show that our protocol (thanks to both algorithmic and implementation optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work.

15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Improved Top-Down Techniques in Differential Cryptanalysis, by Itai Dinur and Orr Dunkelman and Masha Gutman and Adi Shamir

  The fundamental problem of differential cryptanalysis is to find the highest entries in the Difference Distribution Table (DDT) of a given mapping F over n-bit values, and in particular to find the highest diagonal entries which correspond to the best iterative characteristics of $F$. The standard bottom-up approach to this problem is to consider all the internal components of the mapping along some differential characteristic, and to multiply their transition probabilities. However, this can provide seriously distorted estimates since the various events can be dependent, and there can be a huge number of low probability characteristics contributing to the same high probability entry.

In this paper we use a top-down approach which considers the given mapping as a black box, and uses only its input/output relations in order to obtain direct experimental estimates for its DDT entries which are likely to be much more accurate. In particular, we describe three new techniques which reduce the time complexity of three crucial aspects of this problem: Finding the exact values of all the diagonal entries in the DDT for small values of n, approximating all the diagonal entries which correspond to low Hamming weight differences for large values of $n$, and finding an accurate approximation for any $DDT$ entry whose large value is obtained from many small contributions. To demonstrate the potential contribution of our new techniques, we apply them to the SIMON family of block ciphers, show experimentally that most of the previously published bottom-up estimates of the probabilities of various differentials are off by a significant factor, and describe new differential properties which can cover more rounds with roughly the same probability for several of its members. In addition, we show how to use our new techniques to attack a 1-key version of the iterated Even-Mansour scheme in the related key setting, obtaining the first generic attack on 4 rounds of this well-studied construction.

15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Ideal Multilinear Maps Based on Ideal Lattices, by Gu Chunsheng

  Cryptographic multilinear maps have found many applications, such as multipartite Diffie-Hellman key exchange, general software obfuscation. However, currently only three constructions are known, and are \"noisy\" and bounded to polynomial degree. In this paper, we describe constructions of ideal multilinear maps using ideal lattices, which support arbitrary multilinearity levels. The security of our construction depends on hardness assumption over ideal lattices. Moreover, we describe one-round multipartite Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocols by using our construction.

15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Fibonacci Ring Oscillators as True Random Number Generators - A Security Risk, by Markus Dichtl

  Fibonacci ring oscillators are shown to have a risk to oscillate periodically instead of chaotically. The security implications of this are discussed. The probability of the occurrence of the periodic oscillations is determined experimentally on an FPGA for Fibonacci ring oscillators of lengths 16 and 32. Means to overcome the problem of the periodic oscillations are also discussed.

15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Toward Secure Implementation of McEliece Decryption, by Mariya Georgieva and Frédéric de Portzamparc

  We analyse the security regarding timing attacks of implementations of the decryption in McEliece PKC with binary Goppa codes. First, we review and extend the existing attacks, both on the messages and on the keys. We show that, until now, no satisfactory countermeasure could erase all the timing leakages in the Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) step. Then, we describe a version of the EEA never used for McEliece so far. It uses a constant number of operations for given public parameters. In particular, the operation flow does not depend on the input of the decryption, and thus closes all previous timing attacks. We end up with what should become a central tool toward a secure implementation of McEliece decryption.

13:01 [Event][New] School on Computer-aided Cryptography

  From June 1 to June 4
Location: College Park, USA
More Information:

20:21 [Event][New] S3: SAC Summer School

  From August 10 to August 12
Location: Sackville, Canada
More Information:

09:17 [Pub][ePrint] Lightweight MDS Involution Matrices, by Siang Meng Sim and Khoongming Khoo and Fr\\\'ed\\\'erique Oggier and Thomas Peyrin

  In this article, we provide new methods to look for lightweight MDS matrices, and in particular involutory ones. By proving many new properties and equivalence classes for various MDS matrices constructions such as circulant, Hadamard, Cauchy and Hadamard-Cauchy, we exhibit new search algorithms that greatly reduce the search space and make lightweight MDS matrices of rather high dimension possible to find. We also explain why the choice of the irreducible polynomial might have a significant impact on the lightweightness, and in contrary to the classical belief, we show that the Hamming weight has no direct impact. Even though we focused our studies on involutory MDS matrices, we also obtained results for non-involutory MDS matrices. Overall, using Hadamard or Hadamard-Cauchy constructions, we provide the (involutory or non-involutory) MDS matrices with the least possible XOR gates for the classical dimensions 4x4, 8x8, 16x16 and 32x32 in GF(2^4) and GF(2^8). Compared to the best known matrices, some of our new candidates save up to 50% on the amount of XOR gates required for an hardware implementation. Finally, our work indicates that involutory MDS matrices are really interesting building blocks for designers as they can be implemented with almost the same number of XOR gates as non-involutory MDS matrices, the latter being usually non-lightweight when the inverse matrix is required.

09:17 [Pub][ePrint] Exhausting Demirci-Selçuk Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks against Reduced-Round AES, by Patrick Derbez and Pierre-Alain Fouque

  In this paper, we revisit Demirci and Selçuk meet-in-the-middle attacks on AES. We find a way to automatically model SPN block cipher and meet-in-the-middle attacks that allows to perform exhaustive search of this kind of attacks. This search uses the tool developed by Bouillaguet, Derbez and Fouque at CRYPTO 2011 as a subroutine to solve specific systems. We also take into account ideas introduced by Dunkelman, Keller and Shamir at ASIACRYPT 2010 which can be seen as a new tradeoff of the classical time/memory tradeoff used by Demirci and Selçuk. As a result, we automatically recover all the recent improved attacks of Derbez, Fouque and Jean on AES and we show new improved attacks against 8-rounds of AES-192 and AES-256.