International Association for Cryptologic Research

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2015-03-23
15:17 [Pub][ePrint] The Simplest Protocol for Oblivious Transfer, by Tung Chou and Claudio Orlandi

  Oblivious Transfer (OT) is the fundamental building block of cryptographic protocols. In this paper we describe the simplest and most efficient protocol for $1$-out-of-$2$ OT to date, which is obtained by tweaking the Diffie-Hellman key-exchange protocol. The protocol achieves UC-security against active corruptions in the random oracle model.

Due to its simplicity, the protocol is extremely efficient and it allows to perform $n$ OTs using only:

\\begin{itemize}

\\item \\textbf{Computation:} $3n+2$ exponentiations ($2n$ for the receiver, $n+2$ for the sender) and

\\item \\textbf{Communication:} $32(n+1)$ bytes (for the group elements), and $2n$ ciphertexts.

\\end{itemize}

We also report on an implementation of the protocol using elliptic curves (Curve25519), and on a number of mechanisms we employ to ensure that our software is secure against active attacks too.

Experimental results show that our protocol (thanks to both algorithmic and implementation optimizations) is at least one order of magnitude faster than previous work.



15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Improved Top-Down Techniques in Differential Cryptanalysis, by Itai Dinur and Orr Dunkelman and Masha Gutman and Adi Shamir

  The fundamental problem of differential cryptanalysis is to find the highest entries in the Difference Distribution Table (DDT) of a given mapping F over n-bit values, and in particular to find the highest diagonal entries which correspond to the best iterative characteristics of $F$. The standard bottom-up approach to this problem is to consider all the internal components of the mapping along some differential characteristic, and to multiply their transition probabilities. However, this can provide seriously distorted estimates since the various events can be dependent, and there can be a huge number of low probability characteristics contributing to the same high probability entry.

In this paper we use a top-down approach which considers the given mapping as a black box, and uses only its input/output relations in order to obtain direct experimental estimates for its DDT entries which are likely to be much more accurate. In particular, we describe three new techniques which reduce the time complexity of three crucial aspects of this problem: Finding the exact values of all the diagonal entries in the DDT for small values of n, approximating all the diagonal entries which correspond to low Hamming weight differences for large values of $n$, and finding an accurate approximation for any $DDT$ entry whose large value is obtained from many small contributions. To demonstrate the potential contribution of our new techniques, we apply them to the SIMON family of block ciphers, show experimentally that most of the previously published bottom-up estimates of the probabilities of various differentials are off by a significant factor, and describe new differential properties which can cover more rounds with roughly the same probability for several of its members. In addition, we show how to use our new techniques to attack a 1-key version of the iterated Even-Mansour scheme in the related key setting, obtaining the first generic attack on 4 rounds of this well-studied construction.



15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Ideal Multilinear Maps Based on Ideal Lattices, by Gu Chunsheng

  Cryptographic multilinear maps have found many applications, such as multipartite Diffie-Hellman key exchange, general software obfuscation. However, currently only three constructions are known, and are \"noisy\" and bounded to polynomial degree. In this paper, we describe constructions of ideal multilinear maps using ideal lattices, which support arbitrary multilinearity levels. The security of our construction depends on hardness assumption over ideal lattices. Moreover, we describe one-round multipartite Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocols by using our construction.



15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Fibonacci Ring Oscillators as True Random Number Generators - A Security Risk, by Markus Dichtl

  Fibonacci ring oscillators are shown to have a risk to oscillate periodically instead of chaotically. The security implications of this are discussed. The probability of the occurrence of the periodic oscillations is determined experimentally on an FPGA for Fibonacci ring oscillators of lengths 16 and 32. Means to overcome the problem of the periodic oscillations are also discussed.



15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Toward Secure Implementation of McEliece Decryption, by Mariya Georgieva and Frédéric de Portzamparc

  We analyse the security regarding timing attacks of implementations of the decryption in McEliece PKC with binary Goppa codes. First, we review and extend the existing attacks, both on the messages and on the keys. We show that, until now, no satisfactory countermeasure could erase all the timing leakages in the Extended Euclidean Algorithm (EEA) step. Then, we describe a version of the EEA never used for McEliece so far. It uses a constant number of operations for given public parameters. In particular, the operation flow does not depend on the input of the decryption, and thus closes all previous timing attacks. We end up with what should become a central tool toward a secure implementation of McEliece decryption.



13:01 [Event][New] School on Computer-aided Cryptography

  From June 1 to June 4
Location: College Park, USA
More Information: https://www.easycrypt.info/trac/wiki/SchoolUMD2015




2015-03-22
20:21 [Event][New] S3: SAC Summer School

  From August 10 to August 12
Location: Sackville, Canada
More Information: http://mta.ca/sac2015/s3.html


09:17 [Pub][ePrint] Lightweight MDS Involution Matrices, by Siang Meng Sim and Khoongming Khoo and Fr\\\'ed\\\'erique Oggier and Thomas Peyrin

  In this article, we provide new methods to look for lightweight MDS matrices, and in particular involutory ones. By proving many new properties and equivalence classes for various MDS matrices constructions such as circulant, Hadamard, Cauchy and Hadamard-Cauchy, we exhibit new search algorithms that greatly reduce the search space and make lightweight MDS matrices of rather high dimension possible to find. We also explain why the choice of the irreducible polynomial might have a significant impact on the lightweightness, and in contrary to the classical belief, we show that the Hamming weight has no direct impact. Even though we focused our studies on involutory MDS matrices, we also obtained results for non-involutory MDS matrices. Overall, using Hadamard or Hadamard-Cauchy constructions, we provide the (involutory or non-involutory) MDS matrices with the least possible XOR gates for the classical dimensions 4x4, 8x8, 16x16 and 32x32 in GF(2^4) and GF(2^8). Compared to the best known matrices, some of our new candidates save up to 50% on the amount of XOR gates required for an hardware implementation. Finally, our work indicates that involutory MDS matrices are really interesting building blocks for designers as they can be implemented with almost the same number of XOR gates as non-involutory MDS matrices, the latter being usually non-lightweight when the inverse matrix is required.



09:17 [Pub][ePrint] Exhausting Demirci-Selçuk Meet-in-the-Middle Attacks against Reduced-Round AES, by Patrick Derbez and Pierre-Alain Fouque

  In this paper, we revisit Demirci and Selçuk meet-in-the-middle attacks on AES. We find a way to automatically model SPN block cipher and meet-in-the-middle attacks that allows to perform exhaustive search of this kind of attacks. This search uses the tool developed by Bouillaguet, Derbez and Fouque at CRYPTO 2011 as a subroutine to solve specific systems. We also take into account ideas introduced by Dunkelman, Keller and Shamir at ASIACRYPT 2010 which can be seen as a new tradeoff of the classical time/memory tradeoff used by Demirci and Selçuk. As a result, we automatically recover all the recent improved attacks of Derbez, Fouque and Jean on AES and we show new improved attacks against 8-rounds of AES-192 and AES-256.



09:17 [Pub][ePrint] Computational Aspects of Correlation Power Analysis, by Paul Bottinelli and Joppe W. Bos

  Since the discovery of simple power attacks, the cryptographic research community has developed significantly more advanced attack methods. The idea behind most algorithms remains to perform a statistical analysis by correlating the power trace obtained when executing a cryptographic primitive to a key-dependent guess. With the advancements of cryptographic countermeasures, it is not uncommon that sophisticated (higher-order) power attacks require computation on many millions of power traces in order to find the desired correlation.

In this paper, we study the computational aspects of calculating the most widely used correlation coefficient: the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. We study various time-memory trade-off techniques which apply specifically to the cryptologic setting and present methods to extend already completed computations using incremental versions. Moreover, we show how this technique can be applied to second-order attacks, reducing the attack cost significantly when adding new traces to a dataset. We also present methods which allow one to split the potentially huge trace set into smaller, more manageable chunks in order to reduce the memory requirements. Our concurrent implementation of these techniques highlights the benefits of this approach as it allows efficient computations on power measurements consisting of hundreds of gigabytes on a single modern workstation.



09:17 [Pub][ePrint] Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies, by Joseph Bonneau, Andrew Miler, Jeremy Clark, Arvind Narayanan, Joshua A. Kroll, Edward W. Felten

  Bitcoin has emerged as the most successful cryptographic currency in history. Within two years of its quiet launch in 2009, Bitcoin grew to comprise billions of dollars of economic value, even while the body of published research and security analysis justifying the system\'s design was negligible. In the ensuing years, a growing literature has identified hidden-but-important properties of the system, discovered attacks, proposed promising alternatives, and singled out difficult future challenges. This interest has been complemented by a large and vibrant community of open-source developers who steward the system, while proposing and deploying numerous modifications and extensions.

We provide the first systematic exposition of the second generation of cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin and the many alternatives that have been implemented as alternate protocols or ``altcoins.\'\' Drawing from a scattered body of knowledge, we put forward three key components of Bitcoin\'s design that can be decoupled, enabling a more insightful analysis of Bitcoin\'s properties and its proposed modifications and extensions. We contextualize the literature into five central properties capturing blockchain stability. We map the design space for numerous proposed modification, providing comparative analyses for alternative consensus mechanisms, currency allocation mechanisms, computational puzzles, and key management tools. We focus on anonymity issues in Bitcoin and provide an evaluation framework for analyzing a variety of proposals for enhancing unlinkability. Finally we provide new insights on a what we term disintermediation protocols, which absolve the need for trusted intermediaries in an interesting set of applications. We identify three general disintermediation strategies and provide a detailed comparative cost analysis.