International Association for Cryptologic Research

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2014-11-19
13:17 [Pub][ePrint] Boomerang Attack on Step-Reduced SHA-512, by Hongbo Yu, Dongxia Bai

  SHA-2 (SHA-224, SHA-256, SHA-384 and SHA-512) is hash function family issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2002 and is widely used all over the world. In this work, we analyze the security of SHA-512 with respect to boomerang attack. Boomerang distinguisher on SHA-512 compression function reduced to 48 steps is proposed, with a practical complexity of $2^{51}$. A practical example of the distinguisher for 48-step SHA-512 is also given. As far as we know, it is the best practical attack on step-reduced SHA-512.



13:17 [Pub][ePrint] On a new fast public key cryptosystem, by Samir Bouftass.

  This paper presents a new fast public key cryptosystem namely : A key exchange algorithm, a public key encryption algorithm and a digital signature algorithm, based on a the difficulty to invert the following function :

$F(X) =(A\\times X)Mod(2^r)Div(2^s)$ .\\\\* Mod is modulo operation , Div is integer division operation , A , r and s are known natural numbers while $( r > s )$ .\\\\* In this paper it is also proven that this problem is equivalent to SAT problem which is NP complete .



13:17 [Pub][ePrint] The SIMON and SPECK Block Ciphers on AVR 8-bit Microcontrollers, by Ray Beaulieu and Douglas Shors and Jason Smith and Stefan Treatman-Clark and Bryan Weeks and Louis Wingers

  The last several years have witnessed a surge of activity in

lightweight cryptographic design. Many lightweight block ciphers have

been proposed, targeted mostly at hardware applications. Typically software performance has not been a priority, and consequently software

performance for many of these algorithms is unexceptional. SIMON and

SPECK are lightweight block cipher families developed by the U.S. National Security Agency for high performance in constrained hardware and software environments. In this paper, we discuss software performance and demonstrate how to achieve high performance implementations of SIMON and SPECK on the AVR family of 8-bit microcontrollers. Both ciphers compare favorably to other lightweight block ciphers on this platform. Indeed, SPECK seems to have better overall performance than any existing block cipher --- lightweight or not.



13:17 [Pub][ePrint] Lattice Point Enumeration on Block Reduced Bases, by Michael Walter

  When analyzing lattice based cryptosystems, we often need to solve the Shortest Vector Problem (SVP) in some lattice associated to the system under scrutiny. The go-to algorithms in practice to solve SVP are enumeration algorithms, which usually consist of a preprocessing step, followed by an exhaustive search. Obviously, the two steps offer a trade-off and should be balanced in their running time in order to minimize the overall complexity. In practice, the most common approach to control this trade-off is to use block reduction algorithms during the preprocessing. Despite the popularity of this approach, it lacks any well founded analysis and all practical approaches seem to use ad hoc parameters. This weakens our confidence in the cryptanalysis of the systems. In this work, we aim to shed light on at least one side of this trade-off and analyze the effect of block reduction on the exhaustive search. For this, we give asymptotic worst case bounds and presents results from both experiments and simulation that show its average case behavior in practice.



13:17 [Pub][ePrint] Simplification/complication of the basis of prime Boolean ideal, by Alexander Rostovtsev and Anna Shustrova

  Prime Boolean ideal has the basis of the form (x1 + e1, ..., xn + en) that consists of linear binomials. Its variety consists of the point (e1, ..., en). Complication of the basis is changing the simple linear binomials by non-linear polynomials in such a way, that the variety of ideal stays fixed. Simplification of the basis is obtaining the basis that consists of linear binomials from the complicated one that keeps its variety.

Since any ideal is a module over the ring of Boolean polynomials, the change of the basis is uniquely determined by invertible matrix over the ring.

Algorithms for invertible simplifying and complicating the basis of Boolean ideal that fixes the size of basis are proposed. Algorithm of simplification optimizes the choose of pairs of polynomials during the Groebner basis computation, and eliminates variables without using resultants.





2014-11-18
19:17 [Pub][ePrint] Boosting Higher-Order Correlation Attacks by Dimensionality Reduction, by Nicolas Bruneau and Jean-Luc Danger and Sylvain Guilley and Annelie Heuser and Yannick Teglia

  Multi-variate side-channel attacks allow to break higher-order masking protections by combining several leakage samples.

But how to optimally extract all the information contained in all possible $d$-tuples of points?

In this article, we introduce preprocessing tools that answer this question.

We first show that maximizing the higher-order CPA coefficient is equivalent to finding the maximum of the covariance.

We apply this equivalence to the problem of trace dimensionality reduction by linear combination of its samples.

Then we establish the link between this problem and the Principal Component Analysis. In a second step we present the optimal solution for the problem of maximizing the covariance.

We also theoretically and empirically compare these methods.

We finally apply them on real measurements, publicly available under the DPA Contest v4, to evaluate how the proposed techniques improve the second-order CPA (2O-CPA).



19:17 [Pub][ePrint] Outsourcing Secure Two-Party Computation as a Black Box, by Henry Carter and Benjamin Mood and Patrick Traynor and Kevin Butler

  Secure multiparty computation (SMC) offers a technique to preserve functionality and data privacy in mobile applications. Current protocols that make this costly cryptographic construction feasible on mobile devices securely outsource the bulk of the computation to a cloud provider. However, these outsourcing techniques are built on specific secure computation assumptions and tools, and applying new SMC ideas to the outsourced setting requires the protocols to be completely rebuilt and proven secure. In this work, we develop a generic technique for lifting any secure two-party computation protocol into an outsourced two-party SMC protocol. By augmenting the function being evaluated with auxiliary consistency checks and input values, we can create an outsourced protocol with low overhead cost. Our implementation and evaluation show that in the best case, our outsourcing additions execute within the confidence intervals of two servers running the same computation, and consume approximately the same bandwidth. In addition, the mobile device itself uses minimal bandwidth over a single round of communication. This work demonstrates that efficient outsourcing is possible with any underlying SMC scheme, and provides an outsourcing protocol that is efficient and directly applicable to current and future SMC techniques.



19:17 [Pub][ePrint] Analysis of Lewko-Sahai-Waters Revocation System , by Zhengjun Cao and Lihua Liu

  In 2010, Lewko, Sahai and Waters proposed an efficient revocation system but they neglected the security differences between one-to-one encryption and one-to-many encryption. In their system, an authority generates all users\' decryption keys once and for all. We remark that the inherent drawback results in that the system is vulnerable to an attack launched by some malicious users. These malicious users could exchange their decryption keys after they receive them from the authority in order to maximize their own interests. Thus, the Lewko-Sahai-Waters revocation system cannot truly revoke a malicious user. From the practical point of view, the flaw discounts greatly the importance of the system.



19:17 [Pub][ePrint] Trapdoor Computational Fuzzy Extractors, by Charles Herder and Ling Ren and Marten van Dijk and Meng-Day (Mandel) Yu and Srinivas Devadas

  We describe a method of cryptographically-secure key extraction from a noisy biometric source. The computational security of our method can be clearly argued through hardness of Learning Parity With Noise (LPN).

We use a fuzzy commitment scheme so the extracted key is chosen by definition to have uniformly random bits. The biometric source is used as the noise term in the LPN problem. A key idea in our construction is to use additional `confidence\' information produced by the source for polynomial-time key recovery even under high-noise settings, i.e., $\\Theta(m)$ errors, where $m$ is the number of biometric bits. The confidence information is never exposed and is used as a noise-avoiding trapdoor to exponentially reduce key recovery complexity. Previous computational fuzzy extractors were unable to correct $\\Theta(m)$ errors or would run in exponential time in $m$.

A second key result is that we relax the requirement on the noise in the LPN problem, which relaxes the requirement on the biometric source. Through a reduction argument, we show that in the LPN problem, correlation in the bits generated by the biometric source can be viewed as a bias on the bits, which affects the security parameter, but not the security of the overall construction.

Using a silicon Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) as a concrete example, we show how keys can be extracted securely and efficiently even under extreme environmental variation.



19:17 [Pub][ePrint] Security Analysis of an Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards, by Gaurav Tiwari and Amit K. Awasthi and Neha Shukla

  In 2010, Sood et al [3] proposed a secure dynamic identity based authentication scheme using smart cards. They claimed that their scheme is secure against various attacks. In this paper, we improve their scheme for outsider attack as well as insider attack. To remedy these security flaws, an improved scheme is proposed to withstand these attacks.



19:17 [Pub][ePrint] Fully Secure Self-Updatable Encryption in Prime Order Bilinear Groups, by Pratish Datta and Ratna Dutta and Sourav Mukhopadhyay

  In CRYPTO 2012, Sahai et al. raised the concern that in a cloud control system revocation of past keys should also be accompanied by updation of previously generated ciphertexts in order to prevent unread ciphertexts from being read by revoked users. Self-updatable encryption (SUE), introduced by Lee et al. in ASIACRYPT 2013, is a newly developed cryptographic primitive that realizes ciphertext update as an inbuilt functionality and thus improves the efficiency of key revocation and time evolution in cloud management. In SUE, a user can decrypt a ciphertext associated with a specific time if and only if the user possesses a private key corresponding to either the

same time as that of the ciphertext or some future time. Furthermore, a ciphertext attached to a certain time can be updated to a new one attached to a future time using only public information. The SUE schemes available in the literature are either (a) fully secure but developed in a composite order bilinear group setting under highly non-standard assumptions or (b) designed in prime order bilinear groups but only selectively secure. This paper presents the first fully secure SUE scheme in prime order bilinear groups under standard assumptions, namely, the Decisional Linear and the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumptions. As pointed out by Freeman (EUROCRYPT 2010)and Lewko (EUROCRYPT 2012), the communication and storage, as well as, computational efficiency of prime order bilinear groups are much higher compared to that of composite order bilinear groups with an equivalent level of security. Consequently, our SUE scheme is highly cost-effective than the existing fully secure SUE.