International Association for Cryptologic Research

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2014-10-10
15:17 [Pub][ePrint] A Decentralized Public Key Infrastructure with Identity Retention, by Conner Fromknecht, Dragos Velicanu, Sophia Yakoubov

  Public key infrastructures (PKIs) enable users to look up and verify one another\'s public keys based on identities.

Current approaches to PKIs are vulnerable because they do not offer sufficiently strong guarantees of \\emph{identity retention}; that is, they do not effectively prevent one user from registering a public key under another\'s already-registered identity.

In this paper, we leverage the consistency guarantees provided by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Namecoin to build a PKI that ensures identity retention.

Our system, called Certcoin, has no central authority and thus requires the use of secure distributed dictionary data structures to provide efficient support for key lookup.



12:30 [Job][Update] Associate professor (lecturer) in Computer Security., University of Birmingham, UK

  This is a permanent research and teaching position in one of UK\\\'s top research-led universities. The Security and Privacy group undertakes research in all fields related to information and cyber security, privacy, cryptography, etc.

12:20 [Job][New] Tenure-Track Faculty Positions, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

  The Laboratory of Cryptology and Computer Security (LoCCS) at the CS Department of Shanghai Jiao Tong University invites applications for several tenure-track faculty positions in the area of cryptology, in particular (but not limited to), authenticated encryptions, leakage-resilient cryptography, side-channel attacks, obfuscation. Candidates with a proven track record (especially publications at top venues) are encouraged to apply. Salaries will be globally competitive and commensurate with candidates\' accomplishments and experience. Shanghai Jiao Tong University is a member of China\'s C9 League and she has one of the country\'s best CS schools.

06:17 [Pub][ePrint] Fault Attack revealing Secret Keys of Exponentiation Algorithms from Branch Prediction Misses, by Sarani Bhattacharya and Debdeep Mukhopadhyay

  Performance monitors are provided in modern day computers for observing various features of the underlying microarchitectures. However the combination of underlying micro-architectural features and performance counters lead to side-channels which can be exploited for attacking cipher implementations. In this paper, to the best of our knowledge we study for the first time, the combination of branch-predictor algorithms and performance counters to demonstrate a fault attack on the popular square-and-multiply based exponentiation algorithm, used in the RSA. The attacks exploiting branching event like branch taken can be foiled by Montgomery Ladder based implementation of the exponentiation algorithm, while attacks based on branch miss are more devastating. We demonstrate the power of the attack exploiting branch misses from performance monitors by formalizing a fault attack model, where the adversary is capable of performing a bit flip at a desired bit position of the secret exponent. The paper characterizes the branch predictors using the popular two-bit predictor and formulates the dependence on the number of branch misses on the fault induced. This characterization is exploited to develop an iterative attack algorithm where knowledge of the previously determined key-bits and the difference of branch misses (as gathered from the performance counters) are utilised to determine the next bit. The attack has been validated on several standard Intel platforms, and puts to threat several implementations of exponentiation algorithms ranging from standard square-and-multiply, Montgomery Ladder to RSA-CRT and which are often used as side-channel counter measures. The attacks show that using the fault attack model featuring branch predictors one can attack implementations of exponentiation: both square and multiply, and Montgomery ladder, which forms the central algorithm for several standard public key ciphers.



06:17 [Pub][ePrint] Quantum Bit Commitment with Application in Quantum Zero-Knowledge Proof, by Dongdai Lin and Yujuan Quan and Jian Weng and Jun Yan

  Watrous (STOC 2006) proved that plugging classical bit commitment scheme that is secure against quantum attack into the GMW-type construction of zero-knowledge gives a classical zero-knowledge proof that is secure against quantum attack. In this paper, we showed that plugging quantum bit commitment scheme (allowing quantum computation and communication) into the GMW-type construction also gives a quantum zero-knowledge proof, as one expects. However, since the binding condition of quantum bit commitment scheme is inherently different from its classical counterpart, compared with Watrous\' security proof, here we encounter new difficulty in soundness analysis. To overcome the difficulty, we take a geometric approach, managing to reduce quantum soundness analysis to classical soundness analysis.

We also propose a formalization of non-interactive quantum bit commitment scheme, which may come in handy in other places. Moreover, inspired by our formalization, we generalize Naor\'s construction of bit commitment scheme to the quantum setting, achieving non-interactive commit stage.

We hope quantum bit commitment scheme can find more applications in quantum cryptography.



06:17 [Pub][ePrint] Classification of the CAESAR Candidates, by Farzaneh Abed and Christian Forler and Stefan Lucks

  In this work we give an overview of the candidates submitted to the

CAESAR competition which are not withdrawn yet. Furthermore, we

propose a classification with regard to their core primitives that

includes several design characteristics.



06:17 [Pub][ePrint] Robust Authenticated-Encryption: AEZ and the Problem that it Solves, by Viet Tung Hoang and Ted Krovetz and Phillip Rogaway

  With a scheme for \\textit{robust} authenticated-encryption a user can select an arbitrary value $\\lambda \\ge 0$ and then encrypt a plaintext of any length into a ciphertext that\'s $\\lambda$ characters longer. The scheme must provide all the privacy and authenticity possible for the requested~$\\lambda$. We formalize and investigate this idea, and construct a well-optimized solution, AEZ, from the AES round function. Our scheme encrypts strings at almost the same rate as OCB-AES or CTR-AES (on Haswell, AEZ has a peak speed of about 0.7 cpb). To accomplish this we employ an approach we call \\textit{accelerated} provable security: the scheme is designed and proven secure in the provable-security tradition, but, to improve speed, one instantiates by scaling down most instances of the underlying primitive.



06:17 [Pub][ePrint] Efficient Identity-Based Encryption over NTRU Lattices, by Léo Ducas and Vadim Lyubashevsky and Thomas Prest

  Efficient implementations of lattice-based cryptographic schemes have been limited to only the most basic primitives like encryption and digital signatures. The main reason for this limitation is that at the core of many advanced lattice primitives is a trapdoor sampling algorithm(Gentry, Peikert, Vaikuntanathan, STOC 2008) that produced outputs that were too long for practical applications.

In this work, we show that using a particular distribution over NTRU lattices can make GPV-based schemes suitable for practice. More concretely, we present the first lattice-based IBE scheme with practical parameters - key and ciphertext sizes are between two and four kilobytes, and all encryption and decryption operations take approximately one millisecond on a moderately-powered laptop.

As a by-product, we also obtain digital signature schemes which are shorter than the previously most-compact ones of Ducas, Durmus, Lepoint, and Lyubashevsky from Crypto 2013.



06:17 [Pub][ePrint] SPHINCS: practical stateless hash-based signatures, by Daniel J. Bernstein and Daira Hopwood and Andreas Hülsing and Tanja Lange and Ruben Niederhagen and Louiza Papachristodoulou and Peter Schwabe a

  This paper introduces a high-security post-quantum stateless hash-based signature scheme that signs hundreds of messages per second on a modern 4-core 3.5GHz Intel CPU. Signatures are 41~KB, public keys are 1~KB, and private keys are 1~KB. The signature scheme is designed to provide long-term $2^{128}$ security even against attackers equipped with quantum computers. Unlike most hash-based designs, this signature scheme is stateless, allowing it to be a drop-in replacement for current signature schemes.



06:17 [Pub][ePrint] Distributed Cryptography Based on the Proofs of Work, by Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski

  Motivated by the recent success of Bitcoin we study the question of constructing distributed cryptographic protocols in a fully peer-to-peer scenario (without any trusted setup) under the assumption that the adversary has limited computing power. We propose a formal model for this scenario and then we construct the following protocols working in it:

(i) a broadcast protocol secure under the assumption that the honest parties have computing power that is some non-negligible fraction of computing power of the adversary (this fraction can be small, in particular it can be much less than 1/2),

(ii) a protocol for identifying a set of parties such that the majority of them is honest, and every honest party belongs to this set (this protocol works under the assumption that the majority of computing power is controlled by the honest parties).

Our broadcast protocol can be used to generate an unpredictable beacon (that can later serve, e.g., as a genesis block for a new cryptocurrency). The protocol from Point (ii) can be used to construct arbitrary multiparty computation protocols. Our main tool for checking the computing power of the parties are the Proofs of Work (Dwork and Naor, CRYPTO 92). Our broadcast protocol is built on top of the classical protocol of Dolev and Strong (SIAM J. on Comp. 1983). Although our motivation is mostly theoretic, we believe that our ideas can lead to practical implementations (probably after some optimizations and simplifications). We discuss some possible applications of our protocols at the end of the paper.



06:17 [Pub][ePrint] Tightly-Secure Authenticated Key Exchange, by Christoph Bader and Dennis Hofheinz and Tibor Jager and Eike Kiltz and Yong Li

  We construct the first Authenticated Key Exchange (AKE) protocol whose security does not degrade with an increasing number of users or sessions. We describe a three-message protocol and prove security in an enhanced version of the classical Bellare-Rogaway security model.

Our construction is modular, and can be instantiated efficiently from standard assumptions (such as the SXDH or DLIN assumptions in pairing-friendly groups). For instance, we provide an SXDH-based protocol whose communication complexity is only 14 group elements and 4 exponents (plus some bookkeeping information).

Along the way we develop new, stronger security definitions for digital signatures and key encapsulation mechanisms. For instance, we introduce a security model for digital signatures that provides existential unforgeability under chosen-message attacks in a multi-user setting with adaptive corruptions of secret keys. We show how to construct efficient schemes that satisfy the new definitions with tight security proofs under standard assumptions.