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03:14 [Event][New] DIMACS Workshop on The Mathematics of Post-Quantum Cryptography

  From January 12 to January 16
Location: New Brunswik, USA
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03:47 [Event][New] Design and security of crypto algorithms and devices for real-world applications

  From May 31 to June 5
Location: Sibenik, Croatia
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03:28 [Event][New] Design and security of crypto algorithms and devices for real-world applic.

  From May 31 to June 5
Location: Sibenik, Croatia
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15:56 [Event][New] nullcon International Security Conference

  From February 4 to February 7
Location: Goa, India
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03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Zipf\'s Law in Passwords, by Ding Wang, Gaopeng Jian, Haibo Cheng, Qianchen Gu, Chen Zhu, Ping Wang

  Despite more than thirty years of research efforts, textual passwords are still enveloped in mysterious veils. In this work, we make a substantial step forward in understanding the distributions of passwords and measuring the strength of password datasets by using a statistical approach. We first show that Zipf\'s law perfectly exists in real-life passwords by conducting linear regressions on a corpus of 56 million passwords. As one specific application of this observation, we propose the number of unique passwords used in regression and the slope of the regression line together as a metric for assessing the strength of password datasets, and prove it in a mathematically rigorous manner. Furthermore, extensive experiments (including optimal attacks, simulated optimal attacks and state-of-the-art cracking sessions) are performed to demonstrate the practical effectiveness of our metric. To the best of knowledge, our new metric is the first one that is both easy to approximate and accurate to facilitate comparisons, providing a useful tool for the system administrators to gain a precise grasp of the strength of their password datasets and to adjust the password policies more reasonably.

03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Verifiable Member and Order Queries on a List in Zero-Knowledge, by Esha Ghosh and Olga Ohrimenko and Roberto Tamassia

  We introduce a formal model for order queries on lists in zero knowledge in the traditional authenticated data structure model.

We call this model Privacy-Preserving Authenticated List (PPAL).

In this model, the queries are performed on the list stored in the (untrusted) cloud where data integrity and privacy have to

be maintained. To realize an efficient authenticated data structure, we first adapt consistent data query model.

To this end we introduce a formal model called Zero-Knowledge List (ZKL) scheme which generalizes consistent membership queries in zero-knowledge

to consistent membership and order queries on a totally ordered set in zero knowledge. We present a construction of ZKL based on zero-knowledge set

and homomorphic integer commitment scheme. Then we discuss why this construction is not as efficient as desired in cloud applications and

present an efficient construction of PPAL based on bilinear accumulators and bilinear maps which is provably secure and zero-knowledge.

03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Client-Server Concurrent Zero Knowledge with Constant Rounds and Guaranteed Complexity, by Ran Canetti and Abhishek Jain and Omer Paneth

  The traditional setting for concurrent zero knowledge considers a server that proves a statement in zero-knowledge to multiple clients in multiple concurrent sessions, where the server\'s actions in a session are independent of all other sessions. Persiano and Visconti [ICALP 05] show how keeping a limited amount of global state across sessions allows the server to significantly reduce the overall complexity while retaining the ability to interact concurrently with an unbounded number of clients. Specifically, they show a protocol that has only slightly super-constant number of rounds; however the communication complexity in each session of their protocol depends on the number of other sessions and has no a priori bound. This has the drawback that the client has no way to know in advance the amount of resources required for completing a session of the protocol up to the moment where the session is completed.

We show a protocol that does not have this drawback. Specifically, in our protocol the client obtains a bound on the communication complexity of each session at the start of the session. Additionally the protocol is constant-rounds. Our protocol is fully concurrent, and assumes only collision-resistant hash functions. The proof requires considerably different techniques than those of Persiano and Visconti. Our main technical tool is an adaptation of the \"committed-simulator\" technique of Deng et. al [FOCS 09].

03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Constant-Round Leakage-Resilient Zero-Knowledge Arguments of Knowledge for NP, by Hongda Li, Qihua Niu, Guifang Huang

  Garg, Jain, and Sahai first consider zero knowledge proofs in the presence of leakage on the local state of the prover, and present a leakage-resilient-zero-knowledge proof system for HC (Hamiltonian Cycle) problem. Their construction is called $(1+\\varepsilon)$-leakage-resilient zero-knowledge, for any constant $\\varepsilon>0$, because the total length of the leakage the simulator needs is $(1+\\varepsilon)$ times as large as that of the leakage received by the verifier. In recent, Pandey provides a constant-round leakage-resilient zero-knowledge argument satisfying the ideal requirement of $\\varepsilon=0$. Whether there exist constant round leakage-resilient zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge for all NP languages is an interesting problem. This paper focuses on this problem and presents a constant-round construction of leakage-resilient zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge for the HC problem.

03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Type 2 Structure-Preserving Signature Schemes Revisited, by Sanjit Chatterjee and Alfred Menezes

  Abe, Groth, Ohkubo and Tibouchi recently presented structure-preserving signature schemes using Type 2 pairings. The schemes are claimed to enjoy the fastest signature verification. By properly accounting for subgroup membership testing of group elements in signatures, we show that the schemes are not as efficient as claimed. We present natural Type 3 analogues of the Type 2 schemes, and show that the Type 3 schemes are superior to their Type 2 counterparts.

03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Improved Timing Attacks on ECDSA, by Vikram Singh

  We improve the timing attack on ECDSA in [1] by Brumley and Tuveri. We use the Gaussian heuristic to analyse the length of error vectors in the lattice Close Vector Problem in order to determine the problems which are theoretically solvable. Then we cost each solution using a strengthened lattice reduction algorithm and Schnorr-Euchner enumeration to determine which problems are practically solvable. The original work by Brumley and Tuveri resulted in OpenSSL\'s ECDSA being updated to remove the timing information they exploited, so that application is not vulnerable to our improvements. However we publish this work as a general advance in side-channel recovery techniques which may be applicable in related scenarios.

03:17 [Pub][ePrint] Generic Hardness of the Multiple Discrete Logarithm Problem, by Aaram Yun

  We study generic hardness of the multiple discrete logarithm problem, where the solver has to solve $n$ instances of the discrete logarithm problem simultaneously. There are known generic algorithms which perform $O(\\sqrt{n p})$ group operations, where $p$ is the group order, but no generic lower bound was known other than the trivial bound. In this paper we prove the tight generic lower bound, showing that the previously known algorithms are asymptotically optimal. We establish the lower bound by studying hardness of a related computational problem which we call the search-by-hyperplane-queries problem.