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The other protocol we consider for analysis is by Wang et al. This is a smart card based authentication protocol. We again perform the clogging (DoS) attack on this protocol via replay. We observe that all smart card based authentication protocols which precede the one by Wang et al., and require the server to compute the computationally
intensive modular exponentiation are prone to the clogging attack. We suggest (another) improvement on the protocol to prevent the clogging attack, which also applies to the protocol by Jiang et. al.
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We show that signatures obtained via Fischlin\'s transformation are existentially unforgeable even in case the adversary is allowed to get arbitrary (yet bounded) information on the entire state of the signer (including the signing key and the random coins used to generate signatures). A similar fact was already known for the Fiat-Shamir transform, however, Fischlin\'s transformation allows for a significantly higher leakage parameter than Fiat-Shamir.
Moreover, in contrast to signatures obtained via Fiat-Shamir, signatures obtained via Fischlin enjoy a tight reduction to the underlying hard problem. We use this observation to show (via simulations) that Fischlin\'s transformation, usually considered less efficient, outperforms the Fiat-Shamir transform in verification time for a reasonable choice of parameters. In terms of signing Fiat-Shamir is faster for equal signature sizes. Nonetheless, our experiments show that the signing time of Fischlin\'s transformation becomes, e.g., 22% of the one via Fiat-Shamir if one allows the signature size to be doubled.
establish the price in open market. However sealed-bid auctions are sub-
ject to bid-rigging attack. Receipt-free mechanisms were proposed to
prevent bid-rigging. The prior receipt-free mechanisms are based on two
assumptions; firstly, existence of untappable channel between bidders
and auction authorities. Secondly, mechanisms assume the authorities
to be honest (not colluding). Moreover the bandwidth required to com-
municate the receipt-free bids is huge. This paper presents a sealed-bid
auction mechanism to resist bid-rigging. The proposed method does not
assume untappable channel nor consider the authorities to be necessarily
honest. The proposed mechanism also manages the bandwidth efficiently,
and improves the performance of the system.