*04:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Statistical Concurrent Non-Malleable Zero Knowledge, by Claudio Orlandi and Rafail Ostrovsky and Vanishree Rao and Amit Sahai and Ivan Visconti
The notion of Zero Knowledge introduced by Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff in STOC 1985 is fundamental in Cryptography. Motivated by conceptual and practical reasons, this notion has been explored under stronger definitions. We will consider the following two main strengthened notions.-- Statistical Zero Knowledge: here the zero-knowledge property will last forever, even in case in future the adversary will have unlimited power.

-- Concurrent Non-Malleable Zero Knowledge: here the zero-knowledge property is combined with non-transferability and the adversary fails in mounting a concurrent man-in-the-middle attack aiming at transferring zero-knowledge proofs/arguments.

Besides the well-known importance of both notions, it is still unknown whether one can design a zero-knowledge protocol that satisfies both notions simultaneously.

In this work we shed light on this question in a very strong sense. We show a {\\em statistical concurrent non-malleable} zero-knowledge argument system for NP with a {\\em black-box} simulator-extractor.

*04:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Untappable communication channels over optical fibers from quantum-optical noise, by Geraldo A. Barbosa and Jeroen van de Graaf
Coherent light, as produced by lasers, gives rise to an intrinsic noise, known as quantum noise, optical noise or shot noise. AlphaEta is a protocol which exploits this physical phenomenon to obtain secure data encryption or key distribution over a fiber-optic channelin the presence of an eavesdropper. In this paper we focus on the cryptographic aspects of AlphaEta and its variants. Moreover, we propose a new protocol for which we can provide a rigorous proof

that the eavesdropper obtains neglible information. In comparison to single-photon quantum cryptography, AlphaEta provide much higher throughputs combined with a well-known technology.

*16:17* [Pub][ePrint]
On the Phase Space of Block-Hiding Strategies, by Assaf Shomer
We calculate the probability of success of block-hiding mining strategies in bitcoin-like networks.These strategies involve building a secret branch of the block-tree and publishing it opportunistically, aiming to replace the top of the main branch and rip the reward associated with the secretly mined blocks. We identify two types of block-hiding strategies and chart the parameter space where those are more beneficial than the standard mining strategy described in Nakamoto\'s paper.

Our analysis suggests a generalization of the notion of the relative hashing power as a measure for a miner\'s influence on the network. Block-hiding strategies are beneficial only when this measure of influence exceeds a certain threshold.

*04:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Optimal Non-Perfect Uniform Secret Sharing Schemes, by Oriol Farràs and Torben Hansen and Tarik Kaced and Carles Padró
A secret sharing scheme is non-perfect if some subsets of participants cannot recover the secret value but have some information about it. This work is dedicated to the search of efficient non-perfect secret sharing schemes. The efficiency is measured by means of the information ratio, the ratio between the maximum length of the shares and the length of the secret value.In order to study perfect and non-perfect secret sharing schemes with all generality, we describe the structure of the schemes through their access function, a real function that measures the amount of information that every subset of participants knows about the secret value. We present new tools for the construction of secret sharing schemes. In particular, we construct a secret sharing scheme for every access function.

We extend the connections between polymatroids and perfect secret sharing schemes to the non-perfect ones to find new results on the information ratio. We find a new lower bound on the information ratio that is better than the ones previously known. In particular, this bound is tight for uniform access functions. The access function of a secret sharing scheme is uniform if all participants play the same role in a scheme (e.g. ramp secret sharing schemes). Moreover, we construct a secret sharing scheme with optimal information ratio for every rational uniform access function.