*16:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Data Security in Cloud Architecture Based on Diffie Hellman and Elliptical Curve Cryptography, by Neha tirthani and Ganesan
Technological advancements in cloud computing due to increased connectivity and exponentially proliferating data has resulted in migration towards cloud architecture. Cloud computing is technology where the users\' can use high end services in form of software that reside on different servers and access data from all over the world. Cloud storage enables users to access and store their data anywhere. It also ensures optimal usage of the available resources. There is no need for the user to maintain the overhead of hardware and software costs. With a promising technology like this, it certainly abdicates users\' privacy, putting new security threats towards the certitude of data in cloud. The user relies entirely for his data protection on the cloud providers, making them solely responsible for safeguarding it. The security threats such as maintenance of data integrity, data hiding and data safety dominate our concerns when the issue of cloud security come up. The voluminous data and time consuming encryption calculations related to applying any encryption method have been proved as a hindrance in this field.In this research paper, we have contemplated a design for cloud architecture which ensures secured movement of data at client and server end. We have used the non breakability of Elliptic curve cryptography for data encryption and Diffie Hellman Key Exchange mechanism for connection establishment. The proposed encryption mechanism uses the combination of linear and elliptical cryptography methods. It has three security checkpoints: authentication, key generation and encryption of data.

*16:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Some Theoretical Conditions for Menezes--Qu--Vanstone Key Agreement to Provide Implicit Key Authentication, by Daniel R. L. Brown
Menezes--Qu--Vanstone key agreement (MQV) is intended to provide implicit key authentication (IKA) and several other security objectives. MQV is approved and specified in five standards.This report focuses on the IKA of two-pass MQV, without key confirmation. Arguably, implicit key authentication is the most essential security objective in authenticated key agreement. The report examines various necessary or sufficient formal conditions under which MQV may provide IKA.

Incidentally, this report defines, relies on, and inter-relates various conditions on the key deriviation function and Diffie--Hellman groups. While it should be expected that most such definitions and results are already well-known, a reader interested in these topics may be interested in this report as a kind of review, even if they have no interest in MQV whatsoever.

*10:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Human Assisted Randomness Generation Using Video Games, by Mohsen Alimomeni and Reihaneh Safavi-Naini
Random number generators have direct applications in information security, onlinegaming, gambling, and computer science in general. True random number generators

need an entropy source which is a physical source with inherent uncertainty, to ensure

unpredictability of the output. In this paper we propose a new indirect approach to

collecting entropy using human errors in the game play of a user against a computer. We

argue that these errors are due to a large set of factors and provide a good source of

randomness. To show the viability of this proposal, we design and implement a game,

conduct a user study in which we collect user input in the game, and extract randomness

from it. We measure the rate and the quality of the resulting randomness that clearly

show effectiveness of the approach. Our work opens a new direction for construction of

entropy sources that can be incorporated into a large class of video games.

*10:17* [Pub][ePrint]
A New Algorithm for Solving the Approximate Common Divisor Problem and Cryptanalysis of the FHE based on GACD, by Jintai Ding, Chengdong Tao
In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for solving the approximate common divisors problems, which is based on LLL reduction algorithm of certain special lattice and linear equation solving algorithm over integers. Through both theoretical argument and experimental data, we show that our new algorithm is a polynomial time algorithm under reasonable assumptions on the parameters. We use our algorithm to solve concrete problems that no other algorithm could solve before. Further more, we show that our algorithm can breakthe fully homomorphic encryption schemes, which are based on the approximate common divisors problem, in polynomial time in terms of the system parameter $\\lambda$.

*10:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Elligator Squared: Uniform Points on Elliptic Curves of Prime Order as Uniform Random Strings, by Mehdi Tibouchi
When represented as a bit string in a standard way, even using point compression, an elliptic curve point is easily distinguished from a random bit string. This property potentially allows an adversary to tell apart network traffic that makes use of elliptic curve cryptography from random traffic, and then intercept, block or otherwise tamper with such traffic.Recently, Bernstein, Hamburg, Krasnova and Lange proposed a partial solution to this problem in the form of Elligator: an algorithm for representing around half of the points on a large class of elliptic curves as close to uniform random strings. Their proposal has the advantage of being very efficient, but suffers from several limitations:

* Since only a subset of all elliptic curve points can be encoded as a string, their approach only applies to cryptographic protocols transmitting points that are rerandomizable in some sense.

* Supported curves all have non-trivial $2$-torsion, so that Elligator cannot be used with prime-order curves, ruling out standard ECC parameters and many other cryptographically interesting curves such as BN curves.

* For indistinguishability to hold, transmitted points have to be uniform in the whole set of representable points; in particular, they cannot be taken from a prime order subgroup, which, in conjunction with the non-trivial $2$-torsion, rules out protocols that require groups of prime order.

In this paper, we propose an approach to overcome all of these limitations. The general idea is as follows: whereas Bernstein et al. represent an elliptic curve point P as the bit string \\iota^{-1}(P), where \\iota is an injective encoding to the curve (which is only known to exist for some curve families, and reaches only half of all possible points), we propose to use a randomly sampled preimage of P under an admissible encoding of the form f^{\\otimes 2}: (u,v)\\mapsto f(u)+f(v), where f is essentially any algebraic encoding. Such encodings f exist for all elliptic curves, and the corresponding admissible encodings f^{\\otimes 2} are essentially surjective, inducing a close to uniform distribution on the curve.

As a result, our bit string representation is somewhat less compact (about twice as long as Elligator), but it has none of the limitations above, and can be computed quite efficiently when the function f is suitably chosen.

*22:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Practical polynomial time solutions of several major problems in noncommutative-algebraic cryptography, by Boaz Tsaban
We provide new provable polynomial time solutionsof a number of problems in noncommutative-algebraic cryptography.

In contrast to the linear centralizer method of \\cite{LinCent}, the new method is

very simple: In order to solve linear equations on matrices

restricted to matrix groups, solve them over the generated

algebras. We name this approach the \\emph{algebraic span method}.

The resulting algorithms are have substantially better performance than those of \\cite{LinCent}.

These algorithms constitute cryptanalyses of the motivating protocols that

cannot be foiled by changing the distributions used in the protocols, and are

practical for most affordable parameter settings.