*19:17* [Pub][ePrint]
On FHE without bootstrapping, by Aayush Jain
In this work we come up with two fully homomorphic schemes.First, we propose an IND-CPA secure symmetric key homomorphic encryption scheme using multivariate polynomial ring over finite fields. This scheme gives a method of constructing a CPA secure homomorphic encryption scheme from another symmetric deterministic CPA secure scheme. We base the security of the scheme on information theoretic arguments and prove the scheme to be IND-CPA secure, rather than basing security on hard problems like Ideal Membership and Gr\\\"obner basis as seen in most polly cracker based schemes which also use multivariate polynomial rings. This scheme is not compact but has many interesting properties. Second, we also describe another similar symmetric key scheme which is compact, fully homomorphic and doesn\'t require bootstrapping. The scheme is on the lines of the work of Albrecht et.al. (Asiacrypt-2011) and is proven to be bounded CPA secure. Proof is based on Ideal Membership/ Ideal Remainder/Gr\\\"obner basis problem.

*19:17* [Pub][ePrint]
On the Indifferentiability of Key-Alternating Ciphers, by Elena Andreeva and Andrey Bogdanov and Yevgeniy Dodis and Bart Mennink and John P. Steinberger
The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is the most widely used block cipher. The high level structure of AES can be viewed as a (10-round) key-alternating cipher, where a t-round key-alternating cipher KA_t consists of a small number $t$ of fixed permutations P_i on n bits, separated by key addition:KA_t(K,m)= k_t + P_t(... k_2 + P_2(k_1 + P_1(k_0 + m))...),

where (k_0,...,k_t) are obtained from the master key K using some key derivation function.

For t=1, KA_1 collapses to the well-known Even-Mansour cipher, which is known to be indistinguishable from a (secret) random permutation, if P_1 is modeled as a (public) random permutation. In this work we seek for stronger security of key-alternating ciphers --- indifferentiability from an ideal cipher --- and

ask the question under which conditions on the key derivation function and for how many rounds t is the key-alternating cipher KA_t indifferentiable from the ideal cipher, assuming P_1,...,P_t are (public) random permutations?

As our main result, we give an affirmative answer for t=5, showing that the 5-round key-alternating cipher KA_5 is indifferentiable from an ideal cipher, assuming P_1,...,P_5 are five independent random permutations, and the key derivation function sets all rounds keys

k_i=f(K), where 0

*16:53* [Job][New]
PhD Positions, *Vernam Lab at WPI, Worcester, MA*
**PhD Positions in Applied Cryptology**The Vernam Lab at WPI in Worcester, MA has open PhD positions in applied cryptology. In particular there are two openings in side channel analysis and countermeasure design and implementation.

Candidates should have a Master’s degree in electronics, computer science or applied mathematics, with strong interest in algorithms and signal processing. Prior experience in side channel analysis and embedded software or hardware design is an asset.

We offer a competitive salary and an international cutting-edge research program in an attractive working environment in the greater Boston area. WPI is one of the highest-ranked technical colleges in the US.

*16:17* [Pub][ePrint]
Garbled Circuits Checking Garbled Circuits: More Efficient and Secure Two-Party Computation , by Payman Mohassel and Ben Riva
Applying cut-and-choose techniques to Yao\'s garbled circuit protocol has been a promising approach for designing efficient Two-Party Computation (2PC) with malicious and covert security, as is evident from various optimizations and software implementations in the recent years. We revisit the security and efficiency properties of this popular approach and propose alternative constructions and definitions that are more suitable for use in practice.* We design an efficient fully-secure malicious 2PC protocol for two-output functions that only requires $O(t|C|)$ symmetric-key operations (with small constant factors) where $|C|$ is the circuit size and $t$ is a statistical security parameter. This is essentially the {\\em optimal} complexity for protocols based on cut-and-choose, resolving a main question left open by the previous work on the subject.

Our protocol utilizes novel techniques for enforcing \\emph{garbler\'s input consistency} and handling \\emph{two-output functions} that are more efficient than all prior solutions.

* Motivated by the goal of eliminating the \\emph{all-or-nothing} nature of 2PC with covert security (that privacy and correctness are fully compromised if the adversary is not caught in the challenge phase), we propose a new security definition for 2PC that strengthens the guarantees provided by the standard covert model, and offers a smoother security vs. efficiency tradeoff to protocol designers in choosing the \\emph{right deterrence factor}. In our new notion, correctness is always guaranteed, privacy is fully guaranteed with probability ($1-\\epsilon$), and with probability $\\epsilon$ (i.e. the event of undetected cheating), privacy is only ``partially compromised\" with at most a {\\em single bit} of information leaked, in \\emph{case of an abort}.

We present two efficient 2PC constructions achieving our new notion. Both protocols are competitive with the previous 2PC based on cut-and-choose. E.g., the price of strengthening a covert 2PC to satisfy our notion (to obtain full correctness and maximum leakage of a single bit), is only $\\frac{1}{\\epsilon}$ additional garbled circuits.

A distinct feature of the techniques we use in all our constructions is to check consistency of inputs and outputs using new gadgets that are themselves \\emph{garbled circuits}, and to verify validity of these gadgets using \\emph{multi-stage} cut-and-choose openings.

These techniques may be of an independent interest.