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2013-06-10
15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Programmable Hash Functions in the Multilinear Setting, by Eduarda S.V. Freire and Dennis Hofheinz and Kenneth G. Paterson and Christoph Striecks

  We adapt the concept of a programmable hash function (PHF, Crypto 2008) to a setting in which a multilinear map is available. This enables new PHFs with previously unachieved parameters.

To demonstrate their usefulness, we show how our (standard-model) PHFs can replace random oracles in several well-known cryptographic constructions. Namely, we obtain standard-model versions of the Boneh-Franklin identity-based encryption scheme, the Boneh-Lynn-Shacham signature scheme, and the Sakai-Ohgishi-Kasahara identity-based non-interactive key exchange (ID-NIKE) scheme. The ID-NIKE scheme is the first scheme of its kind in the standard model.

Our abstraction also allows to derive hierarchical versions of the above schemes in settings with multilinear maps. This in particular yields simple and efficient hierarchical generalizations of the BF, BLS, and SOK schemes. In the case of hierarchical ID-NIKE, ours is the first such scheme with full security, in either the random oracle model or the standard model.

While our constructions are formulated with respect to a generic multilinear map, we also outline the necessary adaptations required for the recent ``noisy\'\' multilinear map candidate due to Garg, Gentry, and Halevi.



15:17 [Pub][ePrint] New Attacks against Transformation-Based Privacy-Preserving Linear Programming, by Peeter Laud and Alisa Pankova

  In this paper we demonstrate a number of attacks against proposed protocols for privacy-preserving linear programming, based on publishing and solving a transformed version of the problem instance. Our attacks exploit the geometric structure of the problem, which has

mostly been overlooked in the previous analyses and is largely preserved by the proposed transformations. The attacks are efficient in practice and cast serious doubt to the viability of transformation-based approaches in general.



15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Verifying computations with state, by Benjamin Braun and Ariel J. Feldman and Zuocheng Ren and Srinath Setty and Andrew J. Blumberg and Michael Walfish

  When outsourcing computations to the cloud or other

third-parties, a key issue for clients is the ability to

verify the results. Recent work in proof-based verifiable

computation, building on deep results in complexity theory

and cryptography, has made significant progress on this

problem. However, all existing systems require computational

models that do not incorporate state. This limits these

systems to simplistic programming idioms and rules out

computations where the client cannot materialize all of the

input (e.g., very large MapReduce instances or database

queries).

This paper describes Pantry, the first built system that

incorporates state. Pantry composes the machinery of

proof-based verifiable computation with ideas from untrusted

storage: the client expresses its computation in terms of

digests that attests to state, and verifiably outsources

that computation. Besides the boon to expressiveness, the

client can gain from outsourcing even when the computation

is sublinear in the input size. We describe a verifiable

MapReduce application and a queriable database, among other

simple applications. Although the resulting applications

result in server overhead that is higher than we would like,

Pantry is the first system to provide verifiability for

realistic applications in a realistic programming model.



15:17 [Pub][ePrint] The LOCAL attack: Cryptanalysis of the authenticated encryption scheme ALE, by Dmitry Khovratovich and Christian Rechberger

  We show how to produce a forged (ciphertext,tag) pair for the scheme ALE with data and time complexity of 2^102 ALE encryptions of short messages and the same number of authentication attempts.

We use a differential attack based on a local collision, which exploits the availability of extracted state bytes to the adversary. Our approach allows for a time-data complexity tradeoff, with an extreme case of a forgery produced after $2^119 attempts and based on a single authenticated message. Our attack is further turned into a state recovery and a universal forgery attack with a time complexity of 2^120 verification attempts using only a single authenticated 48-byte message.



15:17 [Pub][ePrint] Counter-cryptanalysis, by Marc Stevens

  We introduce \\emph{counter-cryptanalysis} as a new paradigm for strengthening weak cryptographic primitives against cryptanalytic attacks.

Redesigning a weak primitive to more strongly resist cryptanalytic techniques will unavoidably break backwards compatibility.

Instead, counter-cryptanalysis exploits unavoidable anomalies introduced by cryptanalytic attacks to detect and block

cryptanalytic attacks while maintaining full backwards compatibility.

Counter-cryptanalysis in principle enables the continued secure use of weak cryptographic primitives.

Furthermore, we present the first example of counter-cryptanalysis, namely the efficient detection whether any given single message has been constructed -- together with an \\emph{unknown} sibling message -- using a cryptanalytic collision attack on MD5 or SHA-1.

An immediate application is in digital signature verification software to ensure that an (older) MD5 or SHA-1 based digital signature is not a forgery using a collision attack.

This would certainly be desirable for two reasons.

Firstly, it might still be possible to generate malicious forgeries using collision attacks as too many parties still sign using MD5 (or SHA-1) based signature schemes.

Secondly, any such forgeries are currently accepted nearly everywhere due to the ubiquitous support of MD5 and SHA-1 based signature schemes.

Despite the academic push to use more secure hash functions over the last decade, these two real-world arguments (arguably) will remain valid for many more years.

Only due to counter-cryptanalysis were we able to discover that Flame,

a highly advanced malware for cyberwarfare uncovered in May 2012,

employed an as of yet unknown variant of our chosen-prefix collision attack on MD5 \\cite{DBLP:conf/eurocrypt/StevensLW07,DBLP:conf/crypto/StevensSALMOW09}.

In this paper we disect the revealed cryptanalytic details and work towards the reconstruction of the algorithms underlying Flame\'s new variant attack.

Finally, we make a preliminary comparision between Flame\'s attack and our chosen-prefix collision attack.



15:17 [Pub][ePrint] A heuristic for finding compatible differential paths with application to HAS-160, by Aleksandar Kircanski and Riham AlTawy and Amr M. Youssef

  The question of compatibility of differential paths plays a central role in second order

collision attacks on hash functions. In this context, attacks typically proceed by starting from the

middle and constructing the middle-steps quartet in which the two paths are enforced on the respec-

tive faces of the quartet structure. Finding paths that can fit in such a quartet structure has been

a major challenge and the currently known compatible paths extend over a suboptimal number of

steps for hash functions such as SHA-2 and HAS-160. In this paper, we investigate a heuristic that

searches for compatible differential paths. The application of the heuristic in case of HAS-160 yields

a practical second order collision over all of the function steps, which is the first practical result that

covers all of the HAS-160 steps. An example of a colliding quartet is provided



12:17 [Pub][ePrint] Multi-file proofs of retrievability for cloud storage auditing, by Bin Wang and Xiaojing Hong

  Cloud storage allows clients to store a large amount of data with the help of storage service providers (SSPs). Proof-of-retrievability(POR) protocols allow one server to prove to a verifier the availability of data stored by some client. Shacham et al. presented POR protocols based on homomorphic authenticators and proved security of their schemes under a stronger security model, which requires the existence of an extractor to retrieve the original file by receiving the program of a successful prover. When using their POR protocol with public verifiability to verify the availability of multiple files separately, the number of pairing operations computed by a verifier is linear with the number of files. To improve the heavy burden on the verifier, we introduce a notion called multi-proof-of-retrievability(MPOR), allowing one verifier to verify the availability of multiple files stored by a server in one pass. We also design a MPOR protocol with public verifiability by extending the work of Shacham et al. The advantage of our MPOR scheme is that computational overhead of a verifier in our scheme is constant, independent of the number of files. Nevertheless, the soundness of our MPOR protocol is proved under a relatively weak security notion. In particular, analysis of our MPOR protocol shows that each file can be extracted in expected polynomial time under certain restriction on the size of processed files.



12:17 [Pub][ePrint] A Dynamic Tradeoff Between Active and Passive Corruptions in Secure Multi-Party Computation, by Martin Hirt and Ueli Maurer and Christoph Lucas

  At STOC \'87, Goldreich et al.~presented two protocols for secure multi-party computation (MPC) among $n$ parties: The first protocol provides \\emph{passive} security against $t

05:27 [Event][New] GreHack 13: Symp on Research in Grey-Hat Hacking (Applied Cryptography & Cryptanalysis)

  Submission: 30 June 2013
Notification: 4 September 2013
From November 15 to November 15
Location: Grenoble, France
More Information: http://grehack.org




2013-06-09
21:17 [Pub][ePrint] Trapdoor Smooth Projective Hash Functions, by Fabrice Benhamouda and David Pointcheval

  Katz and Vaikuntanathan recently improved smooth projective hash functions in order to build one-round password-authenticated key exchange protocols (PAKE). To achieve security in the UC framework they allowed the simulator to extract the hashing key, which required simulation-sound non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs that are unfortunately inefficient.

We improve the way the latter extractability is obtained by introducing the notion of trapdoor smooth projective hash function (TSPHF). A TSPHF is an SPHF with a trapdoor, which may not allow to recover the complete hashing key, but which still allows to compute the hash value, which is enough for an application to PAKE with UC-security against static corruptions. We additionally show that TSPHFs yield zero-knowledge proofs in two flows, with straight-line extractability.

Besides those quite interesting applications of TSPHF, we also show how to generically build them on languages of ciphertexts, using any ElGamal-like encryption. Our concrete instantiations lead to efficient one-round UC-secure PAKE, extractable zero-knowledge arguments, and verifiable encryption of Waters signatures. In the case of the PAKE, our construction is the most efficient one-round UC-secure PAKE to date.



21:17 [Pub][ePrint] Attribute-Based Encryption for a Subclass of Circuits with Bounded Depth from Lattices, by Xiang Xie and Rui Xue

  In this work, we present two Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) schemes for some subclass of circuits based on the Learning with Error (LWE) assumption. Our constructions are selectively secure in the standard model. More specifically, our first construction supports a subclass of circuits with polynomially bounded depth. We call this subclass the OR-restricted circuits which means that for any input $x$, if $f(x)=0$ then for all the OR gates in $f$, at least one of its incoming wires will evaluate to $0$. The second one is a Key-Policy ABE scheme for shallow circuits whose depth is bounded by $O(\\log\\log\\lambda)$, where $\\lambda$ is the security parameter.