International Association for Cryptologic Research

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Paper: Lattices that Admit Logarithmic Worst-Case to Average-Case Connection Factors

Chris Peikert
Alon Rosen
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Abstract: We demonstrate an \emph{average-case} problem which is as hard as finding $\gamma(n)$-approximate shortest vectors in certain $n$-dimensional lattices in the \emph{worst case}, where $\gamma(n) = O(\sqrt{\log n})$. The previously best known factor for any class of lattices was $\gamma(n) = \tilde{O}(n)$. To obtain our results, we focus on families of lattices having special algebraic structure. Specifically, we consider lattices that correspond to \emph{ideals} in the ring of integers of an algebraic number field. The worst-case assumption we rely on is that in some $\ell_p$ length, it is hard to find approximate shortest vectors in these lattices, under an appropriate form of preprocessing of the number field. Our results build upon prior works by Micciancio (FOCS 2002), Peikert and Rosen (TCC 2006), and Lyubashevsky and Micciancio (ICALP 2006). For the connection factors $\gamma(n)$ we achieve, the corresponding \emph{decisional} promise problems on ideal lattices are \emph{not} known to be NP-hard; in fact, they are in P. However, the \emph{search} approximation problems still appear to be very hard. Indeed, ideal lattices are well-studied objects in computational number theory, and the best known algorithms for them seem to perform \emph{no better} than the best known algorithms for general lattices. To obtain the best possible connection factor, we instantiate our constructions with infinite families of number fields having constant \emph{root discriminant}. Such families are known to exist and are computable, though no efficient construction is yet known. Our work motivates the search for such constructions. Even constructions of number fields having root discriminant up to $O(n^{2/3-\epsilon})$ would yield connection factors better than the current best of~$\tilde{O}(n)$.
  title={Lattices that Admit Logarithmic Worst-Case to Average-Case Connection Factors},
  booktitle={IACR Eprint archive},
  keywords={foundations / lattices, worst-case to average-case reductions, number fields},
  note={ 13479 received 26 Nov 2006},
  author={Chris Peikert and Alon Rosen},