International Association for Cryptologic Research

International Association
for Cryptologic Research


Paper: Zero-Knowledge twenty years after its invention

Oded Goldreich
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Abstract: Zero-knowledge proofs are proofs that are both convincing and yet yield nothing beyond the validity of the assertion being proven. Since their introduction about twenty years ago, zero-knowledge proofs have attracted a lot of attention and have, in turn, contributed to the development of other areas of cryptography and complexity theory. We survey the main definitions and results regarding zero-knowledge proofs. Specifically, we present the basic definitional approach and its variants, results regarding the power of zero-knowledge proofs as well as recent results regarding questions such as the composeability of zero-knowledge proofs and the use of the adversary's program within the proof of security (i.e., non-black-box simulation).
  title={Zero-Knowledge twenty years after its invention},
  booktitle={IACR Eprint archive},
  keywords={foundations / Probabilistic Proof Systems, Zero-Knowledge},
  note={ 12026 received 5 Dec 2002},
  author={Oded Goldreich},